he chosen theme from the selected article is systematic errors people make and the factors that affect motivation.  The main idea and managerial issue in this theme is the tendency of people, including project managers to use “rule of thumb” or heuristics that makes decision making a gamble.  Heuristics based on experience may sometimes be accurate but they are usually a source of bias leading to systemic errors.  Usually, heuristics are motivated by past experience which is a biased source of information as it differs from one person to another.  Also, the use of available heuristic to paint descriptions of a process or event to persuade a person does not necessarily provide the best solution or alternative to a given problem.The suggested solution to overcome the systemic errors brought by available heuristic is to stick to previously made analysis based on solid and objective data.  Trumper and Virine mentioned in their article that often, the analysis made is defeated by heuristic information especially when the alternative presented emotionally affects us even if their sources are biased and their data is anecdotal (2018).  All the statistical analysis is voided when a heuristic information is entertained in decision making such as the case presented in the choice of laptop where the recommended laptop based on analysis is disregarded in favor of an alternative brand just because aa friend had one bad experience of the chosen brand.  This kind of decision making would end up in poor judgment and decision making in project management where cost overrun and late schedule are often caused by biases in estimation (Leach, 2003).  To mitigate if not totally remove biases in decision making, it would be necessary to remove heuristics in decision making processes (Trumper and Virine, 2018).  It would be best to stick to the recommendation based on analysis no matter how we feel about such recommendation to avoid heuristic tendency and gambling in decision making. Heuristic would include past experiences that forms part of our biases that is extremely difficult to overcome.  To remove the heuristic tendency of past experiences in the field of project management, it is recommended to keep a database of previous projects including the lessons that were learned from it so that project managers would no longer rely on their own personal experience from their previous projects in their decision making.  Previous experience about cost, duration and other factors affecting a project does not necessarily mean accurate in present decision making and estimation so it would be best to refer to a database before making a decision. The systematic errors people make and the factors that affect motivation is chosen because most people are vulnerable from it especially project managers.  This bias in decision making is universal due to the tendency of emotion to cloud judgment.  Such is the necessity to make objective analysis of any given problem or project based on factual data to be able to aarrive at a data driven and best solution and recommendation.   The solution and/or recommendation that is produced by the objective analysis must be adhered to and followed in its implementation regardless of how one feels or thinks about it to be able to overcome the bias in heuristics and avoid taking unnecessary risks in decision making and handling projects.Reference: Leach, L. (2003). Schedule and cost buffer sizing: How to account for the bias between project performance and your model. Project Management Journal, 34(2), 34-34.Virene L, Trumper M, Virine E, (2018). Heuristics and Biases in Project Management, PM World Journal, Lo

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