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2. Secondary sexual charcters:

They are responsible for the secondary sexual charcters of the male, i.e., the growth and development of hairs at face and chest and the musculine voice.

3. Muscles:

The androgens are presumably responsible for the muscular strength of males as compared to that of females.

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4. Skeleton:

The androgens affect the skeletal growth to a reasonable extent.

5. Colour and texture of skin:

Androgens are responsible for the normal skin, that is firm, ruddy, and of a darker colour (flesh colour). In the absence of androgens skin becomes furrowed, soft and pale in colour.

6. Metabolism:

Recent findings have established that to a great extent the nitrogen, sodium potassium, inorganic phosphorus, and chloride ion metabolisms are dependent upon androgens.

7. Sebaceous glands:

The androgens increase the secretions of the sebaceous glands.

8. Effect on nitrogen retention and muscular development:

In­crease in musculature following puberty which is associated with posi­tive nitrogen balance, is due to metabolic effect of testosterone on pro­tein anabolism.

Many of the changes in skin are probably due to deposition of protein compounds in the skin and the changes in voice could even result from this nitrogen retention function of testosterone.

9. Effect on basal metabolism:

It is believed that androgens (during active sexual life) increase the rate of metabolism some 5 to 10 per cent above the normal value (inactive testes).

This might be due to indirect result of the effect of testosterone on protein ana­bolism and the increased quantity of proteins.

10. Effect on red blood corpuscles:

Average man has 500,000 to 1,000,000 or more R.B.C per cubic millimeter of blood than a average woman.

This difference may be due to the increased meta­bolic rate by testosterone rather than to a direct effect of testosterone on R.B.C production.

11. Effect on electrolyte and water balance:

Androgens cause increased reabsorption of sodium ions in the distal tubule of kidneys lo a slight extent.

Following puberty, the blood and extracellular fluid volumes of the male (subject in relation to weight) increase to a slight extent.

This effect results at least partly from the sodium retain­ing ability of testosterone.

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