HLTHIR403C – Work Effectively With Culturally Diverse Clients and Co-workers.    Explain how the following work practices promote cultural awareness between clients and staff. In your answer provide a brief description of how each work practice may be incorporated or inform your nursing practice.       a) Work Practices    1) Dietary Modification In many cultures, people believe that food promotes health, cures disease, or has other medicinal qualities. In addition, many people believe that maintaining balance is important to health. Nursing staff can become more effective by exploring such beliefs and incorporating them into their nutrition messages. Staff must learn to respect and appreciate the variety of cultural traditions related to food and the wide variation in food practices within and among cultural groups, as this will help to improve the unwell persons outcome through their culture and the nurses care relationship to create a unique cultural environment. Take advantage of interactions with patients from other cultures by asking questions about their foods and also sharing experiences that you may have had. (Better Health Channel, 2016)     2) Cultural/Ethnic History on admission  Staff should collect information on patients’ race, ethnicity, and language so that they can understand the needs of the population they serve, measure disparities in care within their institution, initiate programs to improve quality of care, and provide patient-centered care. Accurate information on patients’ race, ethnicity, and language is essential to ensure the adequacy of interpreter services, patient information materials, and cultural competency training for staff. Ideally, this information can also be linked to quality measures to examine disparities and undertake targeted quality improvement programs to eliminate disparities. (Agency for Healthcare Research, 2014) 3) Interpreter Services   Patients, their families and carers who do not speak English as a first language or who are Deaf have the right to free, confidential and professional interpreters when they use public health services.(Health NSW, 2016) Professional interpreters must be used in all patient care settings to promote effective communication, ensure quality and safety in patient care and to minimise potential adverse events. It is NSW Government policy that professional health care interpreters be used to facilitate communication between people who are not fluent in English, including people who are Deaf, and the staff on the NSW public health system.(NSW Health, 2016). The use of professional interpreters allows health professionals to fulfil their duty of care, including obtaining valid consent. (NSW Health, 2016)  4) Holistic Nursing Practices  Holistic nursing focuses on the whole person within the conditions of the care environment. It is essential that holistic nurses should become culturally competent in giving that care. Such competence begins with the knowledge of how culture affects our attitudes and behaviours in response to others. The ability to provide culturally competent holistic nursing care develops with examining ourselves as we look both at it two ways, from a distance and close up. It then continues to looking at other nurses, health care providers, and clients with this same perspective. Resulting in eventually providing culturally competent holistic nursing care when we begin to understand the importance of cultural differences in the meaning and expression of behaviours related to health and healing. This is achieved when we are able to respect differences between ourselves and others and to communicate openly in ways that honour those differences and that combine the uniqueness of the client’s culture into his or her nursing care. (Berman, Synder et al, 2015)  b) Define the following key terms:    Culture  This is a concept of the universe, material objects, spatial relations, roles, notions of time, religion, hierarchies, meanings, possessions acquired by a group of people in the course of generations through individuals and group striving, attitudes, values, beliefs, experience and cumulative deposit of knowledge. (Your Dictionary, 2017) Ethnicity  Ethnicity refers to the identification with or membership in a particular national, racial, beliefs, language, or cultural group and observance of that group’s customs. (Berman, Synder et al, 2015) Stereotypes  The meaning of a stereotype is any normally known public belief about a type of individual or a certain social group.    (Berman, Synder et al, 2015)  Stereotypes are time and again taken for prejudice for the reason that, similar to prejudice, a stereotype is based on a preceding hypothesis. Stereotypes are normally made about people of specific races or cultures.(Your Dictionary, 2017)      Prejudice This is a preconception, hypothesis made about something or someone prior to having sufficient knowledge to do so with assured precision. The word prejudice is oftenly used for a predetermined opinion toward person or people because of sexual orientation, religion, obesity, political beliefs, disability, age, homelessness, ethnicity, gender, personal characteristics, social class and race. (Berman, Synder et al, 2015)    Discrimination   This is detrimental treatment of persons or person depending on their belonging to a certain category or group. Discrimination is a conduct directed directed to members of another group. It involves not including or barring members of one group from opportunities that are available to others.  (Medical Dictionary, 2017)    Trans-cultural nursing  This is a scientific area of nursing study, humanistic and practice that concentrates on how patterns of behaviour in caring, illness and health are influenced by beliefs and values of a particular cultural group. It applies this knowledge in provision of culturally appropriate care and planning. (Berman, Synder et al, 2015)  Cultural safety/ Cultural competence  Cultural safety is physically safe, emotionally safe, socially and spiritually safe for people; devoid of denial of their identity of who they are and their needs and assault challenge. It involves experience of learning together, shared knowledge, shared meaning, and shared respect.( Berman, Synder et al, 2015) Cultural competence is attitudes, a set of congruent behaviours and policies that come together among professionals and make that system, those professions or agency to work efficiently in cross-cultural situations. (Medical Dictionary, 2017)  Cultural mores & Non-verbal communication  Nonverbal Communication is known as communication without words. It involves noticeable behaviour for example tone of voice, touching, eyes and facial expressions it also includes less apparent messages such as spatial distance between two or more people, posture and dress. (Nonverbal communication for Educators, 2016)   Access and equity – Equal Employment Opportunity Equal Employment Opportunity (EEO) refers to ensuring that the place of work is without harassment and unlawful discrimination. It involves providing programs that assists members of EEO groups to overcome present or disadvantages. (Equal Opportunity and Diversity, 2016)

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