How would you feel if you were victimized or witnessed one of your family members being a victim of violent crimes? This research will better explain how violent crimes cause havoc to our society, damaging our potentiality to live an adequate, safe life. It will explicitly highlight the causes of violent crimes, effects it has on society and measures that could potentially be a great deterrent to violent crimes.          Problems mostly tend to come from sources that breed it, otherwise, the majority of problems found in the world would cease to exist. In order to solve a problem, we must initially address what caused it. Arguably, violent crimes come to life not from one root, but many. Firstly, poverty is considered to be one of the major causes of violent crimes. Being in a state of extreme poverty encourages people, especially young adults, to commit violent crimes to fit their survival needs. Monahan (1994) claimed that “people who commit violence on the street are disproportionately poor and unemployment” (p. 2). This claim strongly suggests that the by-product of poverty (being poor and unemployment) leads to the commitment of violence.Another claim was made by Bonger (1961)  that no human being is the nemesis of society upon birth but dire circumstances such as poverty is what labels them as one. Being an enemy to society suggests that one would be amongst those who commit wrongdoings such as violent crime.          Secondly, alcohol, without question, would make it to the list of factors that contribute to the promoting of violent crimes. While it has been vaguely mentioned that alcohol is the elixir of life, Howard (1918) argues that “If beer is liquid bread,” then clearly “it is not the bread of life but of death.” Simply put, it is very destructive and detrimental to one’s mental, physical and emotional health. Alcohol, consumed in large or little amount, could still decrease the brain and the body’s ability to function properly. Therefore, it hinders sane thinking and encourages intemperance. Intemperance by definition is the lack of self-control. In one study,  Howard (1918) discovered that 13,402 cases were conducted in determining which factor had the highest influence on crime production. The contenders included were unfavorable environment, lack of industrial training, intemperance and other causes. Unsurprisingly, out of the 13,402 criminal cases intemperance takes the cake with 4,179 cases 31. 18% compared to unfavorable environment with 4,091 cases 30.53%, lack of industrial training with  2.943 cases 21.96% and other causes with 2,189 cases 16.33% (p.66). Moreover, There is no doubt a significant positive correlation exists between the increase in consumption of alcohol and the increase in crime rates. For instance, there was a drastic increase in total manufacture of alcohol in France, with a rise from 479,690 hectolitre in 1843 to 1,309,565 in 1879 and finally, to 2,004,000 in 1887 (Howard, 1918). Simultaneously, criminal acts and aggressive behaviours escalated. Particularly, suicide numbers rose from 1,542 in 1829 to 8,202 in 1887 (Howard, 1918). Impaired judgment, coupled with the inability to distinguish between what’s right and what’s wrong will most definitely motivate a drunktard to act on foul crimes.          Secondly, the absence of any means of surveillance may possibly inject fear and paranoia in the hearts of the innocents because their sense of security is on the verge of being threatened. If police officers are not stationed at areas rich in violence, there won’t be any resistance against potential domestic threats and offences. Families and children will be put at harm’s way. Can you imagine your grand-son or grand-daughter abducted by kidnappers or psychopaths and never appearing again because investigations cannot proceed without the presence of any clues? Can you imagine the suffering and excruciating pain your son/daughter has to go through knowing that your grandchild may or may not be alive? Recovered from a book, the authors Welsh and Farrington (2009) made a claim that two perpetrators went on a killing spree and shot victims in cold blood. With the use of a sniper rifle, they shot down a 13 year old boy just arriving to his school, a man cutting the grass in front of a car dealership, a woman who just finished her grocery shopping and a bus driver (p.03). This horrific incident alerted the police forces and terrorized residents nearby. Question is, what if that was your son? Or mom? Or dad? Or even a friend? This all could have been prevented if surveillance measures were implemented sooner rather than later. According to Draper and Cadzow (2004), the aim of surveillance is “to increase the opportunity to see and be seen within a given space, through improved sightlines, lighting and compatible adjacent uses” which has a radical “affect of discouraging undesired behaviour by enhancing opportunities for intervention” (p.09). This claim itself should be sufficient enough to convince everyone that better surveillance results in a safer quality of life.          Violent crimes come in many different forms but one similarity it elicits is the influence of emotions. Not only should the causes of violence be addressed, but also the impact it has on society, whether it be psychological, physical or even behavioral. Psychologically, we experience a mixture of feelings such as anxiety, sadness, paralysis, powerless, hopeless and many more after a horrific incident. It violates our conscience and tampers with our cognitive skills, but it does not stop there. The feelings that were experienced will dictate our actions, behavior and decisions for the rest of our lives, maybe for the better or worse. In one study, it has been reported by Statham et al. (1998) that during a period of 12-month, 22% of sexually abused women had thought of suicide compared to 7% of nonabused women (Cited in Yuan et al., 2003, p. 131). In another study, 26% of victimized women attempted to commit suicide at least once by the age 21 compared to 2.4% of non-victimized women (Yuan et al., 2003). This evidence clearly shows the severe impact of violent offenses such as sexual abuse on human psychology.Women tend to develop post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms because they are victimized. This information might serve as being inadequate or imprecise because other developing symptoms,  other than PTSD, must be accounted for but according to Yuan et al. (2003), it was stated PTSD is significantly associated with victimization. Depression is another symptom brought by the acts of violence. A lot of research is in the works to discover the relation between depression and violence. Kilpatrick et al., (1987)  identified that the increase of violence resulted in the increased chances of developing depression and prolonging it (Cited in Yuan et al., 2003, p.133).          Taking action is the next step to achieving crime prevention. Crime prevention can come in two forms, short and long term. It is advisable to focus specifically on long term solutions due to its long durability and stability. Enhanced surveillance in neighborhoods or areas rich in recurring crimes would be the best place to start.  Not only does this help with monitoring unwanted behavior, it acts as a deterrence to those who are willing to do these horrible crimes, or atleast make them think twice. For example, installing close circuit television in schools, public places, convenient stores and in rural areas will frighten criminals, as it would send an immediate response to police forces against suspicious activity, thus increasing the likelihood of police intervention.          Since the consumption of alcohol is inversely proportional to the price of alcohol, raising the cost of alcohol will decrease the consumption of alcohol thus decreasing the risk of violent crimes from taking place. One research demonstrated that 10% increase in the cost of beer lowered the number of university students who engaged in violence each year by 4%  (World Health Organization, 2009). That is an obvious indication this measure would be highly effective in the future. To test whether there is definite relation between consumption of alcohol and the price of alcohol, the European Union membership decided to cut the prices of alcohol by 33% in Finland. Therefore, alcohol consumption increased and as expected, so did alcohol-related incidents by 17% (WHO, 2009).          We know that poverty is associated with crime activities. We also know that a family, coming from a dire situation with struggles and hardship is not an ideal place for their child to live in because they are more likely to become aggressive and violent as they gradually grow up, shaped by the exposure of intensely hostile environment. However, an interesting study showed that strict supervision and care, particularly from a mother, can counteract the process of her child from becoming a violent person, no matter the odds (Monahan, 1994). Monahan (1994) then suggested a “state-of-the-art educational program” which serves the purpose of teaching parents  how to “effectively monitor their children’s behavior, how to recognize potentially serious misbehavior when it occurs, and how to consistently, but fairly, discipline their children in response to misbehavior” (p. 4).          It is fairly expected that with the incorporation of these preventive techniques, positive results would be consequent. Let’s take one preventive methods of alcohol. In one research taken from a site, it is firmly believed that the increase in taxes of alcohol shows a distinct correlation with the deflation of incidence of drunk driving (Olson, 1985). As it is a convincing evidence in theory, there’s no need to doubt or question its effectiveness and capability in practice. Reduced drunk driving means reduced alcohol-related accidents such as death, injury and so forth.          When we are struck by violence, the primary emotion drawn out is fear. It is natural that we feel fear after a horrific experience but that is not where the issue lies. The fear of violence could cause a change on how we interact with others or perceive things. Although fear might be a good thing, at other times, it could be detrimental to one’s health.  Schneider and Kitchen (2002) discovered that “Areas in which crime prevention strategies have been employed have been seen to have lower fear of crime” (cited in Ford, p. 9).          As crime reduction rate increases due of preventive measures, so does the increase in quality of life. People believe that threats start to gradually dissipate. Having less worry about issues caused by violence, people will begin to come out of their defensive, always-on-their-feet shells and for once, live life with the least amount of concerns. Tremendous pressures will be uplifted off of their shoulders and the feeling of safely once again is rather fulfilling.          There is more than what meets the eye when it comes to violent crimes having a significant impact on society. The implications we see are just the tip of the iceberg. While seeking to create a world free of violence seems like an ideal goal, it still remains farfetched. However, lots of ongoing research are addressing, analyzing and evaluating problems and searching for life-long solutions. Inevitably, With devotion and dedication, tangible effective methods will combat violent crimes and create a society where our future children will live a peaceful and violence-free world.

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