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? What are the different
ways of creating a network?

There are a number of ways one can create a network
such as through a,

Router: Routers are devices that
connect various computer networks through a wire or wirelessly.

Ethernet Cable: Devices like
computers get connected in a local area network through an ethernet cable. It
is the most popular form of wired connection.

Uninterrupted power supplies: In
case of power cuts or power outages people tend to lose data. To get protected
from such situation one requires a UPS. It keeps the computer running for a
specific period of time so that one can save its data before it gets lost.

? LAN v/s WAN:

A network on which all computers located nearby are connected is called a Local
Area Network. However, WAN, unlike LAN doesn’t have a geographical barrier. It
could be across the world as well.

The computers on LAN are generally connected through a single cable or local WIFI.
However, WAN may use external wiring.


?What are PLCs?
PLC stands for programmable logic controller which takes
different inputs and does the decision-making process and generates an output
which goes to different machines and makes a system function.
PLCs are typically used in production lines, machine functions or continuous
process. Generally, PLCs function on feedback mechanism in which, the outputs
are considered and accordingly the PLCs makes changes to generate a constant
desired output. PLC functions on a Ladder logic which is a programming
language. There are different programming languages available for PLC but the
ladder logic is the most popular. 

latest update from the smartphone industry is that,
Samsung is going to launch its Samsung s9 on 25th February and its
Plus variant would come with Dual rear cameras and enhanced iris scanning

Software: These days the software run by most of the top-notch
phones is android Oreo which is the latest offering from google. However, in
case of an iPhone it is IOS 11.

? What are Mobile Devices?

Mobile devices are also known as handheld computers. The
idea behind mobile devices is to actually give convenience to the user. These
devices help their users to do all the things that they can do on a
laptop/desktop but on a compact screen. There are plenty of mobile devices such
as tablets, smartphones etc. however, the most popular category of mobile
devices is Smart Phones. Smart phones also have a feature of cellular calling
that laptops/desktops don’t.

Hardware: Hardware that goes into
the smartphones these days is so powerful that some laptop manufacturers are
actually using the same processor for their laptops.
Recently, HP’s Envy X2 and ASUS’s
NovaGo laptops were launched. These were launched with the snapdragon’s
flagship processor which is known as Snapdragon 835. The same processor is used
by most of the flagship cell phones these days like Google Pixel 2 XL, Galaxy
Note 8, ONEPLUS 5T etc.

These are
the devices with the help of which we give an input and get an output.
These perform simple functions but their presence is inevitable. These devices
make the user experience seamless. Some of the peripherals are mentioned as

Keyboard: This accessory is
connected to the computer and is used to enter the data and give commands to
the computer through the keys on it.

Computer Mouse: It is a device that
is used to point on the screen and held through a hand. As the user moves the
mouse, the cursor also moves on the monitor simultaneously. 

Monitor: It is a device which
displays whatever is happening inside the computer.

Printer: Printer is a device which
receives the information from a computer and transfers it to a piece of paper.
Printers need a cartridge having ink in it to give out a print out. There is a
wide variety of printers in the market and they vary on basis of cost, speed
and connectivity. For example: Some printers get connected wirelessly however
some necessarily need wired connection to communicate with the computer.

Scanners: Scanners are devices which
are used to simply scan the documents and get them on the computer. With the
help of scanners, one can actually convert a hard copy in a soft copy.


? What are peripherals?

? Mother Board:

Motherboard is one of the main components of the computer
as it connects to all parts of the computer. It can also be called as a
backbone of the computer. Mother board has the ports for CPU, RAM, Power
supply, sound and graphic card etc. for easy operation of the user.


RAM stands for Random access memory. RAM acts just like
an outer pocket of a handbag. Just like one can access a water bottle faster in
case it is kept in the outer pocket instead of actually every time getting it
out of the handbag, similarly, RAM helps the computer to keep the applications
in memory instead of opening them each time a user wants to access them. More
the RAM, more the applications can remain in the memory.

? Cache:

Cache is where the data is stored locally so that in future when is data is
required, it can be fetched faster. There are
several types of hardware caches such as CPU cache, GPU cache, DSPs etc.

is Quantum Computing?

Quantum computing is done on high-end computers that are
used in rigorous research activities.  

Selection of boot drives etc

Configurating Hardware

Starting and stopping certain system

Setting the system clock

? Central processing Unit (CPU):

CPU is an electronic component inside a computer
that basically receives commands from the software and transfers the
information to the other components of the computer. It also denotes how fast a
computer can operate. The design, form and implementation of CPUs have changed over the period of
time, but their basic job remains the same.

? Power
Supply Unit:


Power supply is a piece of hardware that facilitates in conversion of power
provided from outside into power that can be used by many parts inside the
computer. It also controls voltage
by regulating overheating. Power supply is one of
the essential hardware components in a computer as without it, other internal
hardware won’t function properly.


BIOS stands for basic input/output system, this is the first thing one actually
sees when they turn on their computer. It’s a software that comes in the computer that initializes the
hardware before booting an operating system from a hard-drive or any other
drive. Following functions can be performed by the users using BIOS:


Office Use: Desktops are used by the employees in a company wherein a
specific task has to be accomplished, however for the employees who keep
travelling for meeting clients or other work, laptop is the more beneficial.

us understand the computer hardware components essentially required to use the
computer in detail:


? What are desktops, laptops and servers?

A desktop computer is a computer which is meant
to be kept on a desk and is not portable. A desktop comes in several components
that are connected to each other such CPU, RAM, motherboard etc. These devices
connect directly with a power source instead of working on a battery.
A laptop on the contrary is portable in nature and can operate on a battery for
a few hours. It is relatively convenient to use than a desktop, however
for high power-consumptions tasks, desktops are preferred over laptops.
A server is a computer, a
device or a program that is dedicated to managing network resources. Servers
are often referred to as dedicated because they carry out hardly any other
tasks apart from their server tasks. There are a number of categories of servers,
including print servers, file servers, network servers and database servers. In
theory, whenever computers share resources with client machines they are
considered servers.
Recently, Apple Launched its much-awaited
version of Imac which is Imac Pro. This time the Imac has all-flash
architecture, Intel Xeon processor with up to 18 cores. Cost of the device
varies from $5000 to $13000 depending upon the configuration selected.

? Different Purposes of Desktops and laptops:

Home Purpose: Both desktops and laptops are used for household purposes.
However, it depends on the kind and quantum of work one has to do on the
computer which determines the purchase.

Gaming: For gaming, desktops have always ruled the market as heavy games need
more power and which can generally be given through high end desktops.
Moreover, configuration can also be changed as per the user.
In the case of Laptops it is generally not so comfortable to play games. Furthermore,
they are heavy to carry around and there is always a hassle to keep it
connected to a power source as their battery drains quickly while playing such


? What is a computer?

The word computer is derived
from a Latin word ‘computare’ which means ‘to calculate’. It is basically an
electronic machine that can solve different problems, process, store and
retrieve data and perform calculations faster than humans. There are several
types of computers such as desktops, laptops and server systems. Different types of computers are used by different people and
organizations depending upon their usage. For example, servers are generally
found in businesses rather than houses as they have to manage many computers at
a time.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  

who are really serious about software, should make their own hardware”

 – Alan Kay

?Why is hardware required?

There may be plenty of reasons
why hardware is important however the biggest reason amongst all is that,
software can only be utilized through hardware. Without software, hardware
might not be that appealing but it would somehow work. Another important use of
hardware is that, owning the hardware, facilitates in providing seamless user
experience. For instance, biggest
reason for Apple products to be so popular, is their phenomenal user
experience. Apple is able to provide such experience because it makes its own
hardware and software unlike the competitors which is also known as, Vertical
Integration Strategy. 

1: Hardware

Subject: Info. Systems & Knowledge management

           Prepared By: Sahil Behl (1049184)

is hardware?

Hardware is a generic term used for tools, equipment or their components used
for a specific purpose. Hardware is tangible in nature and can be of several
types, for example: 1) Computer hardware like Central Processing Unit, BIOS,
Motherboard, Random Access memory etc. 2) Input device Peripherals like a mouse
or a keyboard, output device peripherals like a monitor or a scanner and lastly
storage device peripherals like hard drive. 3) PLCs i.e. programmable logic
controller. 4) Mobile devices like cell phones, tablets, personal digital
assistant (PDA), smartwatch, Bluetooth handset etc. 5) Networking devices like
routers, ethernet cables, repeater, modems etc.

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