According to Sammons, the term institutional effects is commonly used to refer to the impact particular institutions have on their students’ educational outcomes, taking account of differences in intake, whereas institutional effectiveness refers to the factors and processed related to positive or negative effects on such outcomes.
An effective institution is one that has a positive effect upon its students’ educational outcomes, when account is taken of intake.
According to other authors, institutional effect is a much wider term as compared to institutional effectiveness.
According to the Oxford Dictionary, the term ‘effect’ means consequences and the term ‘effectiveness’ means fit for service. This implies that the effects of an institution include the positive and the desirable as well as the negative and the undesirable outcomes of an institution.
Institutional effect refers to those outcomes that are influenced by conditions within the institution. These outcomes could be positive or negative, favourable to the social conditions or unfavourable, desired by the wider community or undesired for the growth and sustenance of the wider community.
For example, the changes taking place in the students in the desirable direction such as favourable attitude towards the institution, its teachers, the curriculum and the peers, good attendance, satisfaction with the institution, adequate self-concept, high levels of academic performance, high staff morale and job satisfaction are taken to be the positive effects of the institution.
On the other hand, drop-out, stagnation, absenteeism, delinquency, truancy, dissatisfaction with the institution and high staff or student turnover could be considered as negative institutional effects.
Institutional effectiveness, on the other hand, includes only the positive outcomes those which are desirable in a particular social context of education. An institution is said to be effective if it attains socially desirable, politically and economically relevant pre-determined objectives national, regional and institutional.
There are several other definitions of effectiveness of organizations:
Etzioni (1964) defines effectiveness as the degree to which organization realizes its goals.
According to Kimberly T979), effectiveness of an organization can be seen in terms of its survival.
Georgopolous and Tannenbaum (1957) define organizational effectiveness as the extent to which an organization, given certain resources and means, achieves its objectives without placing undue strain on its members.
On the other hand, Mott (1972) defines it as the ability of an organization to mobilize its centres of power for action-production and adaptation.
These definitions imply that institutional effectiveness is a multi-dimensional concept and it is a measure of the degree of goal attainments.
This makes it inevitable that the focus of attention now needs to be drawn towards what constitute the positive, desirable outcomes of institutions.
According to Johnsor (1970), the objectives of an educational institution are:
(i) To socialize students into the values and habits of society;
(ii) To teach them the skills needed to fulfill specific adult roles;
(iii) To prepare students for living in a changing world; and
(iv) Develop self-actualizing individuals.
According to Lambert, Millham and Bullock (1970), there are three major approaches of understanding school effectiveness:
(i) Effectiveness in achieving goals pastoral and temporal;
(ii) Effectiveness in achieving the expectations and demands of the school’s para-systems; and
(iii) Effectiveness in fulfilling functions for the wider society.
Chesler and Cave (1981), classify the positive outcomes of schooling into the following broad categories:
(i) Outcomes specified for individuals;
(ii) Outcomes specified for schools as organizations;
(iii) Outcomes specified for the larger community; and
(iv) Outcomes specified for the larger society.
These are some of the outcomes of schooling or indicators of school effectiveness. Now let us look at some of the major outcomes or indicators of Higher Education. These-can is broadly identified as:
(i) Individual Development.
(ii) Development of the Academic Discipline through Research.
(iii) Societal Development.
Having studied the broad outcomes or functions of educational institutions, let us now look at the different dimensions of institutional effectiveness.