This paper explores the implication of leadership, management and
teamwork theories. It explains some theories with examples, then will finish
with a conclusion.
Theory of Leadership” was first introduced by Dr Blanchard and Hersey in their book
“Management of Organisational Behaviour” then in 1982, in the book “the one-Minute
Manager” developed the “situational leadership style”.
situational leadership style is popular amongst leaders, managers, consultants
and trainers and is highly effective in organisations, as the leaders could
adapt to different situations and change their styles and behaviour based on
the environment, the nature of the task, the maturity and commitment level of
the followers plus competencies. Thereby it optimizes the employee’s
performance, morale and productivity level and reduced the cost of the
It comes in
four styles as below:
also known as task-oriented leadership that is not concerned about human
relationships or supporting the subordinates. The leader provides the full
instructions and fully supervises the new or inexperienced employee, who is
unable to complete the task independently so that the employee gets motivated.
high task and relationship style, the leader is more persuasive and tries to
“sell” his ideas to the subordinates and explain the task to them.
high relationship leadership style that focuses and values shared ideas and
This is a low task, low relationship style, in
which the subordinates are trusted and are responsible to make task decisions.
is a good example of this leadership style; a few years ago, he started his
first job as a student for KFC, but at the beginning the job was difficult for
him, he was new and inexperienced. The manager used the S1, gave him a clear
guidance and monitored him closely, otherwise he would get unmotivated and
unwilling to do his tasks properly. one month later he was more desired to do
different tasks independently, but due to his lack of skills and knowledge he
was not capable of doing it. He would be insecure, if he was left alone at this
stage. Therefore, the leader by turning into S2 or consultative leadership
style, paid more attention to him by listening to him and explaining his
decision-making. Just a few month later, after his graduation, he promoted to a
higher position (Manager), he was the youngest at his work place and less
experienced but with higher earning. The qualified were unwilling to cooperate,
perhaps they felt it was unfair to them that a young newly graduated person
without enough experience become get a higher position with higher salary,
while they have been working there for a long time. He applied S3
(Participation) style to avoid the insecurity and reluctance; he conferred with
them and supported them by asking them to participate in decision-making. That eliminated
their insecurity and increased their willingness to work independently, as they
felt their opinions are valued which all in all led into a higher turnover for
the business that year.
3 years ago,
my brother opened a small café shop, he has decided to develop his work and
open another franchise in another city. Over 3 years he and his employees have
developed a good relationship. They are highly qualified and willing to do
their job and they are trusted to do decision-making tasks alone without any
supervision. He believes they have a high maturity level and commitment and can
work independently, can manage the shop and work even if there is a problem.
Thereby, he can delegate the tasks to them and leave this shop and go and
starts the new business in the other city, this is called S4 or delegating
The us president; Dwight Eisenhower and two of the most
successful basketball coaches Pat Summitt
Wooden. WD-40, Anthem Blue Cross Blue Shield,
British Telecom, the city of Battle Creek, Michigan, Genentech, the San Diego
Padres, and the Royal New Zealand Navy are all examples
and Transactional Leadership
This style inspires people to achieve their
goals with great outcomes. The “quiet leaders” engage the followers by using
rapport, inspiration and empathy. They are well-organised and team -oriented, increase
the followers’ confidence, moral and motives and , after training them,
encourage them to be creative and let them make decisions when its needed to
achieve the best results.
James MacGregor Burns first introduced this
concept of leadership in 1978, “stimulate and inspire followers to both achieve extraordinary
outcomes and, in the process, develop their own leadership capacity” (Bass and
features of transformational leader:
a model of
integrity and fairness
goals with high expectations
support and encourage them to look beyond their self-interest. (Bass, 1985)
leaders set specific goals and objectives within the organisation culture, lead
the subordinate, motivate their performance by reward and punishment. It is
beneficial for sales and production, helps the company to be more efficient and
do the day-to-day business corporation. e.g. factories
his departure from Apple Computer, Jobs founded the computer company NeXT in
1986. He also purchased Pixar, which was the graphics-arts division of
Lucasfilm. A decade later, in 1996, Apple purchased NeXT, and once again took
on Jobs as an employee (“Apple co-founder,” 2011). At the time, Apple Computer
was in dire fiscal straits, with its market share down to 3.8 percent during
the second quarter of 1997 (Kanellos, 1997). Over the next decade, Jobs helped
to revive Apple Computer and to reestablish it as a market leader. The newly
renamed Apple, Inc., eventually challenged ExxonMobil as the most valuable
company in 2011. Among other things, under Jobs’ leadership, Apple pioneered
the iMac, which debuted in 1998; the opening of the Apple Stores; and the iPod,
which debuted in 2001. Most recently, Jobs helped to launch the iPhone in 2007
and the iPad in 2010 Steve jobs As a result of these innovations
with NeXT and Apple, Jobs is thought to have revolutionized at least seven
industries: personal computers, animated film, music, telephones, tablet
computing, digital publishing, and retail stores (“Apple co-founder,” 2011;
DeCarlo, 2011; Isaacson, 2011).
Nokia, the leading
brand in the market, following the transactional leadership extinct because the
leaders ignored the analysed data sets and did not adapt the necessary changes.
other hand, companies such as facebook, LinkedIn and Twitter continuous learning,
improvement and developing the new ideas and radical modular changes into the
business companies and being aware of the competing market (garrison, Harvey
and Napier, 2008).
was the main
key for new start-up businesses like Silicon Valley California companies to be
successful by being innovative and adapting changes by predicting market
trends. (Choudary, 2013).
such as Apple, Samsong snd Amazone.com Apple,
(Adamson, 2013; Fields, Blake and
Travers, 2008; Junod, 2011; Isaacson, 2011).
save the company and turned into the top leadig market by applying the
transformational theories to the business module by by being innovative,
bringing changes and introducing new devices such as iPad, iPhone and …. By continuously analysing the data form the
market trend and changews in the market and customer’s trend and needs and
wants. (Aluya, 2014)
Mostly New start-up companies like silicon
Valley, could be at historical unchangeable companies like Nokia
McGregor X and Y
Managers can adapt to theory X, when the
employees are lazy, self-centred, resistant to changes. Are not ambitious,
responsible or interested into the organisational objectives and resist to
changes. (McGregor 2000, P. 7
However, theory Y is applied when the staff
have psychological need, they are committed to a set of objectives, self-
controlled, responsible and looking to achieve higher goals. (McGregor 2000,
p. 7)Theory Y assumes that workers have a psychological need to work and will
exercise self-control and initiatives when they are. They also want achievement
and seek responsibility.
Jobs used carrot and stick management for his staff, train and motivated highly
talented people. He sacked those, who go against him and try to shut down the
Macintosh project, hired great employees, his team were loyal (Leander Kahney,
When no one supported Ratzlaff,
an Apple director, had
an idea for iMac, until Steve Jobs complimented on hid work Ratzlaff and he felt
happy as Jobs is a person who has very high expectation which only few people
can manage to give him what he required (Leander Kahney, 2008). He became a great manager by applying different styles and balancing
these two approaches. Giant companies like Google and Apple that are run based
on people’s creativity. Thereby, use theory Y, encourage their employees to be
creative, inventive and innovative to come up with new ideas, designs and
products, to be highly responsible and finish different tasks at high standard
by supporting their creativity and giving them rewards such as increasing
payments, free products, vacations, etc.
Jamie Oliver the
English chef is also using theory X and Y at his work place.
Scientific management theory
In 1900s by Fredric w. Taylor introduced the
concept of Scientific management or Taylorism for manufacturing industries to
increase the cost efficiency and labour productivity, which is about finding
the best method of doing tasks, scientifically hiring, training and developing
all employees, dividing tasks fairly and equally between management and workers
and set the reward system for completing tasks faster and in the best way.
(Adapted from Husni, n.d.)
It is used in fast food restaurants like McDonald’s;
they put reward system for employees to meet the objectives, train them and have
uniform method of achieving each job. Taylor said if there are no incentives
the productivity level would decrease, even if workers put more effort. Hard
workers are recognised and rewarded by Competitive salary and promotion
programs like ‘Employee of the Month’ or simply saying ‘Job well done’. Staff have
specialized training and a uniform method for every employee to do their
individual job. By having a sequence of thorough and precise working procedure
ensures the food send out to the customer has high quality in all franchised. To
optimize the efficiency the layout of machinery and equipment are measured and
calculated, especially in the food production line. The ingredients for burger
are placed strategically for the workers to reduce the movement and maximize
the time efficiency. It also applied to the service line, when the staff follow
a rigid script when they talk take orders. (Michael. Markadrianus, 2015)
Ford Motor Company is another successful
company that benefited from the scientific management theory by simply using
the specialized staff who were trained and suitable for specific job. Ford used
the assembly-line process, by which workers remained stationary in an assembly
line and the body of the car moved through each worker, allowing them to do
their task, then move it to the next station until the car was completed. This
improved the time efficiency and decreased the cost of production, which
allowed for lower prices in the market and having the mass production (EyeWitness
to History, 2005). In 1914, Ford improved its employees’ moral by increasing
their wages and reducing the working hours (The Franklin Institute).
“groups of two or more people who interact and influence each other,
are mutually accountable for
achieving common objectives and perceive themselves as a social entity” (Bratton et al, 2007, p. 300)
This shows that group is not fully-formed, but
individuals start knowing each other and passing some stages reach cohesiveness
by finishing the task.
Forming, when individuals put in a team, they
might be polite, positive or anxious, since they don’t know their role or even
each other and they try to find their place in the team and know about the
others. The leader’s roles important, as the members don’t know their roles and
Storming, conflict arise usually between the
members’ working style. Members may question the team’s goal and become
resistant to do their tasks. Those who stick to the task, might have stress, as
they don’t have strong relationship with their colleagues or don’t have support
of established process.
they get more
committed and start to accept their differences, appreciate members’ strengths, and respect the authority as a leader. They respect each other and start socialising and they might ask for
help from and give feedback on each other’s work.
the hard work will be done to the achieve the team’s
goal Without friction the leader can delegate more tasks to members and can
focus on developing team members. They feel they are part of the team and those
who join, or leave won’t disturb performance.
Many teams get to this stage, after finishing the
project and reaching the goal, members have usually an established relationship
and might get separated and they might not see each other until the next
project. If they feel like they want to work with each other again means
(Forming)This like when at the beginning of the
course, every student is new, and they don’t know each other, they are put into
groups to do a new task (Presentation), they might get anxious, as they don’t
know each other and their task and roles, they need to be directed and the team
leader needs to set clear objectives for individuals and the whole team.
(Storming) team members start to know each other and build trust and resolve
any conflicts occurred and support each other, if any one doesn’t know how to
do the task. (Norming) they get more motivated and committed to their task and
roles and they start socialising, as they know each other more and help and
give feedback on each other’s work. Performing, the presentation is done, and
embers have finished their tasks. Adjourning, the task is finished, but those
students that are now friends, they might want to do more tasks with their
hierarchy of needs theory in human
It starts with physiological needs like food, then
safety like security like having secure job, followed by feeling of love or
sense of belonging, like employees at google, as they have friendly atmosphere
like a family. Esteem or being respect by others and finally,
self-actualization that is an example of morality.
Google values the importance of psychological
safety. It provides a safe, friendly and encouraging atmosphere for all the
employees, thereby they feel motivated and more productive, they share their
ideas, as they feel safe that no one would humiliate them. Starbucks, use this theory by treating all
the employees equally, listening to them and giving them time-off based on
their needs. Each shop has a small number of employees, so they can build a
strong relationship, matching different personalities quickly and increase the
Dabbawalla another great example of teamwork providing
food to people through the chain of people through the train, which is costly,
but with level of performance, even in supreme weather with low error.
(Adapted from, Jain, n.d,)
To sum up, different theories of leadership,
management and teamwork have been introduced during the years and businesses
apply one or more of them that suit most based on the business aims and so on. For
example, Situational leadership style could bring most success to the company,
as they could change their style based on the nature of the job and the
employee maturity level. Management theories such as scientific management is
still used inn companies like McDonalds, as it improves the productivity and
efficiency. Theory of X and Y is also another theory that could bring success,
e.g. Steve Jobs, Jamie Oliver. Applying the right theory of teamwork could
highly affect the employee’s performance, thus companies like Starbucks and
Google and Dabbawallas are successful.
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