I follow a vegan diet since 2017 January and live cruelty free life
style since 2015. During this period, I read blogs, articles and watched a wild
range on interviews, documentaries cover this topic. Saw changes in these years
on a market, information getting more understandable for everyone and could be
In this research investigated the market changes in sales and production
in the dairy and meat industry in UK in the past 5 years. This research based
on fact and figures, but will raise questions about the industry future. What
cultural changes the dairy and meat industry need to face.
In the American dairy industry, it is common to have a size of the herd
what is hold over 2000 cows. The largest size of a herd has nearly 15.000 cows
The dairy farming industry in the UK is worth £3.8 billion value agriculture sector (Defra, 2013), what is 17 percent of
UK agricultural production by value.
The meat industry all together is worth £7.3 billion (at a market price UK Agricultural production, 2014) in
The UK meat-free market worth £625 million in
2013, up from £543 million in 2009 (Mintel, 2014). The number of vegetarians
and vegans rise over the years in the UK and all around the word. People
deciding to put of in their diet dairy and/or meat by health environmental and
ethical reasons. This tendency will show in the younger generation mostly the
under 25 age range.
Further will look closer the changes in production and sales and
investigate the reasons behind them.
Companies was directly approached: Asda UK Tesco UK, Alpro and Quorn.
Only sales data find what from Alpro company. Tesco UK declined to give
sales data by have no resources to provide information for research (mail
provided as evidence in references). Had no answer from Asda UK. Quorn Company
replied but not financial data provided till this time unfortunately.
In the research used secondary data what provided by the UK government
in public statistics and briefing papers mostly made by the
Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra).
Viva! is a registered charity one of the largest what based in UK. Was founded in 1994 by Juliet Gellatley, who is the charity’s director. They do and did number of
research about e the dairy and meat industry, they are looking in the ethical,
environmental and health causes mostly as a result using fact figures. Viva!
Have considerable influence on the public and consumers decisions.
Mintel is the world`s leading market intelligence agency founded in
1972, with offices all around the world. Mintel do market research, market
analysis, product intelligence, competitive intelligence what was used as a
great resource in this project. Not all their data available for free, but
still a good range of been used.
The Vegetarian Society another
charity whom work with businesses, government agencies, policy makers and
professionals, whilst always remaining independent. Established in 1847 and the
oldest vegetarian organisation in the world. Found it a good source of
statistic data, what helped in the start of the research. Help to found where
to look for further for reliable information.
Cows are mammals
who, like us, produce milk in their mammary glands to feed their young. They
therefore must give birth to a calf to produce milk and must be re-impregnated
every year to keep that milk supply going.
heifers are impregnated for the first time when they are between 14 and 28
months old, giving birth to their first calf nine months later. Farmers aim to
get cows impregnated as early as possible to reduce the time and cost of
keeping a cow that can’t be milked.
Dairy farming in
the UK has changed dramatically in the last 40 years. ‘Traditional’ dairy
farming (small herds with maximum access to outdoors) is the minority and has
been replaced with increasingly intensive methods. This includes using
selectively bred cow breeds for excessive milk yield, large herds and zero or
In the graph
below can clearly see the overall production of milk not changed significantly,
although the number of cows are in decline by 30% over 8 years. As a result of
an intensive methods of farming rises the litres of average milk produced per
cow increased by 45%.
(House of Commons Library, Briefing paper 2016)
The meat industry in the UK mostly means intensive farming. As saw earlier
on the companies’ priority is to make profit, and making profit quickly. By
then keep the cattle on a highly unnatural cereal-based diet what can lead to
fattened up and ready to slattern in 1-2 years.
consumption is relatively high compared to other countries, but has steadily
declined since the 1970s. Consumption of carcase meat (joints or steaks) has
fallen while that of non-carcase meat (chicken, turkey, sausages, pies and
meat-based ready meals) has increased. However, despite the huge increase in
chicken sales, taken together, total meat consumption in the UK has fallen over
& Livestock – UK Yearbook (2013)
Farm Business Survey, Defra, 2017
*Farm type classification changed from 2007SO averages to 2010SO averages
Comments: Includes meat but
no fish. Includes meat in meals eaten both in and outside the home. Includes
imported meat products for 2008-12, excludes imported meat products 2006-07.
Red meat g/day
As can see above in the table this tendency shown in the
people dietary choice to cutting down meat in meal choices.
The drop-in meat consumption seen in all categories
(beef, pork, chicken) in 2008/2009 may reflect the drop-in income many
experienced during the financial crash of that period. The drop-in beef
consumption seen in 2013 is probably linked to the horsemeat scandal of that
year. However, the overall trend in meat-reduction reflects a growing awareness
of the links between meat-eating and human disease as well as an increasing
number of people rejecting the slaughter of animals for food thanks to the
campaigning work and undercover exposés undertaken by Viva! The dietary change
has a higher difference in a younger population (under 25).
In the UK currently 1,674of large intensive pig and
poultry farm holding an Environment Agency permit. That number increased 26%
since 2011when there were 1,332facilities requiring a permit (The Bureau of Investigative Journalism, 2017) Intensive
farming means the farms have capacity for housing at least 40,000 poultry birds
or 2,000 pigs grown for meat or 750 breeding pigs.
These numbers are seeming very little from the nearly 800
mega farms; the largest poultry farms in the UK have capacity to able to hold 1.4
– 1.7 million birds. The biggest pig farm can hold 23,000 pigs.
Over the last decade the number of vegans in the UK risen by 360 percent,
in 2006 only 150,000 people said follow vegan diet by 2014 that number raised
up to 542,000 (Mitel,2014). In 2013 the meat-free market worth £625 million
consumption falls, the vegetarian and vegan food market rapidly expanding.
Market researchers say that the number of new vegetarian and vegan food and
drink products doubled between 2009 and 2013 (Mintel, 2014). They say that 12
per cent of global food and drink products launched in 2013 carried a
vegetarian claim, up from six per cent in 2009, and two per cent of global food
and drink launches carried a vegan claim in 2013, up from one per cent in 2009.
This is a substantial portion of the market and veganism is now one of
Britain’s fastest growing lifestyle movements.
Alpro Company is the leading company
who provide the biggest selection of dairy free product. Bellow see the Alpro
Company show a steady growth in past 5 years.
According the last
government survey 2% of the population in the UK is vegetarian which is more
than 1.2 million people, vegans are less than 1% of the population (National Diet and Nutrition Survey: Results from Years 1, 2,
3 and 4 (combined) of the Rolling Programme (2008/2009 – 2011/2012), 2014)
generations are the most likely to be following a meat-free lifestyle. 19
percent of Brits under the age of 25 say they do not eat red meat or poultry, and
25 percent are women in this age group.
In population see a rising number of
people who reducing meat eating in their diet, 28 percent of meat eating Brits have reduced
or limited their meat consumption in the last six months (Mintel, March
2017). What is more, 14% percent of
adults say they are interested in limiting or reducing their consumption of
meat or poultry in the future, proving that the meat-free movement.
Individuals on higher
incomes were more likely to be vegetarian. Household with income of over £44,000
per annum 7 percent of them claim there are follow vegetarian diet, compare to 2
percent of the household claim of those with an income less than £14,999 per
annum (Food Standards Agency, 2010).
There are many reasons behind this
change. While animal welfare the number one
reason (54%) why non-meat eaters say they avoid meat, for those under 25,
environmental benefits is the leading factor, this group is the only group
which is more likely to avoid meat for environmental reasons (29%) as opposed
to concerns over animal welfare (22%).
With numbers of the population rising
who eliminated or reduce of animal product from their diet
and we saw evidence the meat and dairy industry are decline.