It was made as a result of a recommendation from
International organisation of Standards. It works by splitting all the
processes that occur within a network into the layers which means that when new
protocols or standards are made such as IEEE (institute for electronic and
electrical engineers) or ANSI (American national standards institute) they can
be placed into the model, in this case in the data link layer, which aids
protocol integration and understanding.

It defines standards for the following:

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How devices are able to communicate with each

How to tell devices when it is okay to, and when
it is not alright to, send data

How to ensure that devices have the appropriate
data flow rate

Making sure that the data is passed on to, and
received by, the intended recipient

The way in which physical transmission media is
sorted and joined together





Physical Layer

This “Is the bit level transmission between devices that
supports electrical/mechanical interfaces connecting to the physical medium for
synchronised connection”. Its purpose is to accept a complete frame from the
data link layer and encode it to a series of signals that are then transmitted
to the local media.  This transfer of
data can be measured as the bandwidth (capacity to a medium to carry data) and
throughput (measure of transfer of bits across the media). Different types of
cabling can be used to connect to a device and these will give different

Copper cabling is widely used because it is inexpensive,
easy to install, has low resistance to current and has a distance and signal
interface. There are multiple different types of these cables as shown below:

UTP (unshielded twisted pair) – widely used type
as used for ethernet cables

STP (shielded twisted pair) – this is the same
as UTP but uses additional shielding to reduce external interference. This
helps get the maximum performance in less than ideal external conditions, but
this greatly increases costs so is used mostly by large companies.

Coaxial cables – 80 times the transmission
capability of the twisted pair cables due to its insulating later, conducting
shield and outside sheath

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