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Junipers have been used for different purposes in the
area, among the individuals  58.92% were
justified that the genus are used for fuel purposes, 10.71% said as the genus
is used as timber wood, 30.35% individuals agree for both fuel and timber wood.

Different parts of the junipers are used in the locality
i.e. 89.28% individuals said that branches and stem are used for fuel and
timber purposes, while 10.71%  respond as
both stem, branches and roots are used for fuel purposes.

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(Fig. 2.2)
Questioner result analysis

Junipers are collected from different season of the year,
62.5% local inhabitants are collecting the genus late autumn, 35. 71% collected
the junipers during winter and 0.1% peoples are using any season of the year. Uses
of junipers per year in the area is extremely high and without check and
balance, 16.96% peoples were collected 1-5 mounds junipers last year i.e. 2016
for fuel purposes, 45.53% were collected 5-10 mounds, 17.85% collected 10 mounds
and more than 10 mounds while 19.64% local inhabitants were not using junipers
for any meant.

 

(Fig. 2.1)
Questioner result analysis

Access to the population of junipers has gone far away
from the residential areas, in most of the valley junipers are not found in
plane areas but at higher elevation, 19.64% peoples were used less than an hour
to access on junipers, 53.57% peoples used 2 hours and 28.57% peoples used more
than 3 hour to get access on junipers,

(Fig. 2.2)
Questioner result analysis

The junipers population is greatly reduced in the area,
89.28% inhabitant responded that the junipers were abundant, while 10.17%
peoples said that the magnitude of the population are same as it was in the
past.

 

Fig. 2.3 Questioners analysis

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

DISCUSSION

Juniperus is one of the most important forests found all
over the world, the world largest forest of Junipers are found at California,
United States of America, in Pakistan the largest juniper forest is found in
Ziarat Baluchistan. The status of these genera has not been clear in Pakistan however
flora of Pakistan describe 4 species found across the country. According to the
flora of Pakistan all these four species are found in the study area, but being
the undated information some of the species either mistreated or have been
removed from natural forest of Chitral District.

In Pakistan particularly in the study area most of the
valleys were unexplored to junipers, the previous data have been collected
mostly from the lower riches of the district, two new species are found in the
area i.e. J.sabina and J.semiglobosa some of the other species
have great variations from place to place.

The area is under high pressure of anthropogenic
activities especially in upper areas of the district the peoples are solely
dependent upon the junipers for fuel wood and were using the plants as timber
wood due to its durability, most critical point is here that the junipers are
only tree species found in high peaked mountains of upper Chitral which protect
the soils from erosion but recently most of the area have been washed out
without any local or governmental restrictions and in most of the areas these
are only restricted on inaccessible areas where men may not reaches. Grazing
may not affect the plants but to some extend destructions due to browsing were
recorded.

Another worst fact is that the junipers takes many years
for their growth even up to 4000 years therefore regeneration is almost less
after being destructed. The area has harsh weather during winter so the
dependency on junipers increase by decreasing in temperature and the local people
stack the plants during late autumn.

Images

Fig. xxx
Steppes of junipers found along the Yarkhun River, at Ounavich, Yarkhun

Fig. No. xxx Male and female plants of Juniperus semiglobosa found in Yarkhun
valley

 

Figure Junipers showing morphological variation at
Onshot, Laspur valley

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