Measures taken in ensuring the worldwide proper continued education catered for displaced childrenBy Nikhil Isac and Elijah Jacob, Edited by Executive council member Dana Al MarzouqAbstract      This paper focuses on the issue of measures taken in ensuring the worldwide proper continued education catered to displaced children.       2.  IntroductionDisplaced children are minors who have been separated from their parents and immediate family  due to civil insurrection, natural disasters, ethnic conflict or other factors.The majority of displaced children are denied a basic level of education which they rightfully deserve as human beings. Instead, they are subject to the worst forms of human labour.These children can be abused and are most vulnerable to sexual exploitation and oppression. They can be enslaved in many parts of the world and can be introduced into human trafficking rings (referring to UN Declaration of Independence Article 4). Education is the key to empowering a nation and reviving it from the depths of abject poverty. Refugees who are born into poverty have no way out of it unless they are educated which is why it should of paramount importance.       3.Glossary Education- the process of receiving or giving systematic instruction, especially at a school or universityInternally displaced children- internally displaced children do not cross international borders recognized by a State but are displaced within the borders of their own nation. Displacement – forcing citizens to leave their home country due to persecution, natural disaster or warChildren (or minor)- a young individual below the legal age of majorityRefugee- a person forced to flee from conflict, natural disaster or persecution from their country       4.HistoryAccording to UNHCR (United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees) as of 2002 there were approximately 22 million displaced children in the world. Several of whom are displaced for a long period of time. Children in worst affected areas in armed conflict or disruption face an average of 6 to 7 years of displacement.Across Eastern Europe and Russia in the first half of the twentieth century, conflict and violence arising out of foreign and civil wars, occupation, revolutions, social and ethnic restructuring and racial persecution has caused the displacement of countless millions of children.Of the 6 million primary and secondary school-age refugees under UNHCR’s support, 3.7 million have no access to education. Refugee children are five times more likely to be out of school than non-refugee children. Only 50% have access to primary education, compared with a global level of more than 90%. And as they get older, the gap widens: 84% of non-refugee adolescents attend lower secondary school, but only 22% of refugee adolescents have that same opportunity. At the higher education level, just 1% of refugees attend university compared to 34% globally.By the end of 2015, 6.7 million refugees were living in situations where it seemed as though there was not going to be a solution. Refugees in forced displacement for such long periods find themselves in a state of limbo.  Only 2.3 million were in school, 3.7 million were out-of-school. 1.75 million refugee children were not in primary school and 1.95 million refugee adolescents were not in secondary school. The 1.75 million refugee children in primary school and the 550,000 refugee adolescents in secondary education were in need of increased support in order for them to remain in school.Despite continuous efforts to expand the provision of education to more refugee children. The increased demand on education and support has caused enrolment rates to fall in the past few years, even in countries where determined efforts have been made to get more refugee children into school.In 2016, members of the United Nations set out an agenda for global action for the next 15 years. (Sustainable Development Goal 4), “Ensure inclusive and quality education for all and promote lifelong learning”, however, this goal had been deemed unachievable by 2030 due to the vast numbers of displaced children without access to education and cases of corruption worldwide.Secondary school is almost taken for granted is large due the unequal distribution of wealth around the world. Worldwide, 84% of lower secondary-age adolescents are enrolled in school. By contrast, in countries with the largest refugee populations, access to secondary education for refugees is rare: in Pakistan, 5% of secondary-age refugee adolescents attend school; in Cameroon only 6 per cent; in Ethiopia, the figure is 9%, while in Turkey, host to 2.7 million registered Syrian refugees, it is 13% ( roughly 350,000 Syrian refugees in Turkey have access to secondary education)       5.Current SituationAn estimated 25 million minors are currently displaced from their homesMinors constitute of close to half of the worldwide refugee populationRefugee children are 5 times more likely to be out of schoolLebanonIn a country like Lebanon with a population of almost 4.5 million people, almost 1.5 million people are classed as refugees. Public schools cater to all Lebanese children and in the recent times; to refugee children equally. However, only less than 3% of Syrian Refugee children between 15-18 attend public schools. This is mainly because parents feel that their families need more money to sustain the living of their usually large families. Public Secondary schools in Lebanon have requirements they expect all applying students to adhere to such as providing a transcript from previous years of schooling or completing the official ‘Brevet Exam’ which can be near impossible for the indigent refugees. These schools also charge a tuition fee of  $180 per student, the UNESCO launched a project to cover the fees for non-Lebanese students in these schools.Another major factor that inhibits the learning of Syrian refugee children is the side costs of attending school; transportation and cost of learning materials. Refugee parents, without any source of income, find it extremely hard to sustainably keep their children in school due to these rising costs. Painstakingly, they attempt to set aside some money from meager jobs to feed schools who demand students attend with adequate materials.YemenIn the midst of the Yemeni Civil war, Yemen has completely been demolished. Children have suffered tremendously susceptible to a plethora of different diseases namely the world’s worst cholera outbreak. They have been fighting the on the brink of starvation and other horrid diseases linked specifically to malnourishment.Education interventions are trying to rebuild classrooms by damaged schools and a safe learning environment for children to receive the education they deserve. In 2017, approximately 375,000 children were provided with access to education by school rehabilitation, capitation grants and temporary learning spaces.Central African RepublicWith the upsurge in violence, the recruitment and use of children by armed groups increased by 50 percent between the years of 2016 and 2017 which is a clear indicator of the magnitude of the violated human rights. Furthermore, due to civil unrest, approximately one in four children is out of school and is deprived of an education.https://www.unicef.org/infobycountry/car.htmlhttps://www.unicef.org/media/media_93278.htmlAdd small paragraph about central african republic and/or congo  as this issue is prevalent in these areas.Include paragraph about how this issue is being addressed/ resolved today.Possible SolutionsProviding free education to all children under the refugee status worldwideCreation of an educational organization hosted by the UN to aid the education of the displaced children which could work by:Volunteer organizations seeking qualified teachers to assist these underprivileged children United Nations need to take more action than in the past to allow the Lebanese government Building new schools in refugee areas for easier accessibility and inclusivity Useful Resourceshttp://yapi.org/youth-wellbeing/refugee-and-internally-displaced-children/https://www.humanium.org/en/displaced-children/http://www.unhcr.org/events/campaigns/46ef9a9d2/education-displaced-children-colombia.htmlhttp://www.un.org/en/udhrbook/pdf/udhr_booklet_en_web.pdfhttp://www.brill.com/products/book/displaced-children-russia-and-eastern-europe-1915-1953http://www.unhcr.org/57d9d01d0.pdfhttps://www.hrw.org/report/2016/07/19/growing-without-education/barriers-education-syrian-refugee-children-lebanon

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