Mesopotamia and Egypt were thefirst civilizations, emerging between 3500 and 3000 BC. Though their locations differ, Mesopotamia meaning "between the rivers", being located between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers, and the Egyptian civilization residing in the Valley of the Nile River, the two civilizations have much in common. Both possessing a strong theme of religion in their everyday lives, they share a strong common belief in a higher power, as well as the theme of struggle for survival and of being conquered, and a passion for knowledge and wisdom. The two civilizations however differ in challenges and resolutions to problems presented by their location and people.
Both Mesopotamia and Egypt were polytheistic civilizations that believe that the true rulers were Gods. Mesopotamia wasfirst settled by Sumerians which built thefirst city-states, later developing and expanding into new cities which, during the Early Dynastic Period (2800-2350 BC), were ruled by the Gods, merely humanly represented by prosperous families. Though Gods were undisputedly the highest of rulers, the development of Earthly power was rising. Circa 2800 BC the Council of Elders took power, soon to be replaced by a lugal, or "big man", and then an ensi, king or queen, a hundred or so years later. These people represented the Gods, to the human eye- they were the Gods. The next to gain power was the warrior-kings of Mesopotamia, namely Enmebaragesi of Kish and Agga, and Gilgamesh. Their goals were to correct abuses and weaken threats to power. Egypt was much quicker at creating a unified kingdom, as early as ~3100 BC. Their culture, a mixture of African and west Asian, brought upon an influence of thoughts and ideas to Egypt. Their isolation also helped to decrease attacks and invasions for almost 1500 years. The Egyptian civilization was known for it's hierarchical power, similar in structure of a pyramid. At the top was the ph…

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