Occupational health The specialized practice of medicine, public health, and other professions (e.g., industrial hygienist, ergonomist, safety technician, occupational psychologist) in an occupational setting or with a focus determinants of health. It aims to promote health as well as to prevent occupationally related diseases and injuries and the impairments arising therefrom—and, when work-related injury or illness occurs, to treat these conditions, and/or to promote return to work. It combines preventive, therapeutic, and rehabilitation services. (1) occupational health is considered a corner stone in modern health system.Industrial diseases have been known about since Hippocrates (ancient Greece. Ca 400 BC) there is even evidence to show that occupational diseases were recognized by the ancient Egyptians. Over time the recognition of links between occupation and ill health has increased and the associations strengthened. In parallel with this technique were developed to evaluate and control the risks. (2) The World Health Organization estimates that globally there are: 2,000,000 work-related deaths per year, 386,000 deaths each year from exposure to airborne particulates. 152,000 deaths per year from carcinogens in the workplace.37% of Lower Back Pain is attributed to occupation. (3)The scope of occupational safety and health has evolved gradually and continuously in response to social, political, technological and economic changes. In recent years, globalization of the world’s economies and its repercussions have been perceived as the greatest force for change in the world of work, and consequently in the scope of occupational safety and health, in both positive and negative ways. Liberalization of world trade, rapid technological progress, significant developments in transport and communication, shifting patterns of employment, changes in work organization practices, the different employment patterns of men and women, and the size, structure and life cycles of enterprises and of new technologies can all generate new types and patterns of hazards, exposures and risks. Demographic changes and population movements, and the consequent pressures on the global environment, can also affect safety and health in the world of work. (4)Some countries provide state occupational hygiene services, through central institutes of occupational health. Others place statutory requirements on employers to use qualified hygienists or occupational health services. Yet others have no regulatory requirements. Sudan use the labor office and mannerly ministry of health.the ministry of labor (labor office) has played an important and continually evolving role in workplace health and safety. Adapting legislation, policies and procedures to keep pace an ongoing priority for the ministry. The Ministry of health also works to prevent workplace illness and injury by implementing the priorities of its integrated occupational health and safety strategy like: Workmen’s Compensation for Injuries Act, Mining Operations Act, Factories Act (amendment), Building Trades Protection Act, Paymaster Accident, Construction Safety Act Replaces the Building Trades Protection Act, Industrial Safety Act. As part of the strategy, the ministry collaborates with its partners to improving the effectiveness of the system. (5)The declaration of Alma-Ata in 1978 led to the recognition of the importance of primary health care (PHC) workers and community health workers in bringing health care to where people live and work. PHC and community health care workers in most developing countries are not trained in the special needs of workers nor in the simple measure that can be taken to prevent or overcome and control many workers’ health problems. The major role of any occupational health is the provision of medical checkup for employees to insure that they are fit to perform their jobs and to identify the disease that are treatable like hypertsion. such things can be performed by pre-employment medical checkup and annuls checkup afterword’s. That help also in identifying communicable disease such as TB and will aid in their control role the second major role for occupational health is to provide annual vaccination such as flu vaccine by those two roles the occupational health helps to prevent days of work which a have negative impact on the finance a third role of occupational health is to provide a health education to staff about the variety of work-based behavior for instance, wearing a mask or gloves and preforming hand hygienic materials for health care providers which prevent and limit disease to spread between staff and patients the international labor organization have said to implant such policies around the world is labor rights in Sudan a collaboration between ministry of health and the labor office is already stablished however being the thereof world country we are lacking behind thought lot establishment in Sudan have an occupational health department have not yet established or not activated or ignored due to lack of fines or personals.Ministry of health should enforce the profession of such policies and aid of trained personnel. As for Sudan we are acutely having a huge gab in occupation health which cost the country millions of pounds each year. Labor office and ministry of health should make more efforts with the limited resources to implant the occupational health in Sudan.The much bigger problem is that regulatory requirements are misunderstood and applied inappropriately. The changes recommending seek to address where this arises by:a. streamlining the body of regulation through consolidation;b. re-directing enforcement activity towards businesses where there is the greatest risk of injury or ill health;c. re-balancing the civil justice system by clarifying the status of pre-action protocols and reviewing strict liability provisions.Occupational services are organized in a variety of different ways depending on:the size and resources of the employing organization. the need for specialist expertise. the availability of outside helpServices provided by the state may have enforcement or advisory roles or both. Sometimes the two functions sit a little uncomfortably together, as when an inspector offers advice but threatens to prosecute if the advice is not taken. State services are usually seen as authoritative but may also be viewed with suspicion if they have a role in enforcement. Enforcing inspectors in the field are usually health and safety generalists, who call in specialist occupational help when required to carry out surveys and provide advice. may also be involved in: Coordinating data for standard setting. Serving on national and international committees. Liaison with many national scientific, industrial and academic bodies. Commissioning or conducting research. Producing guidance on the whole spectrum of prevention and control issues. Drafting and reviewing legislation.In some countries the state agencies are funded through general taxation. In others, companies pay a compulsory levy to fund state occupational health services. The levies may be supplemented by discounted consultancy fees forspecific projects. In these countries, private commercial consultancies tend to be uncommon.In other hand Employers have the responsibility to provide a safe workplace. Employers MUST provide their employees with a workplace that does not have serious hazards and must follow all OSHA safety and health standards. Employers MUST also:? Prominently display the official poster that describes rights and responsibilities under the Act.? Inform workers about hazards through training, labels, alarms, color-coded systems, chemical information sheets and other methods.? Train workers in a language and vocabulary they can understand.? Keep accurate records of work-related injuries and illnesses.? Perform tests in the workplace, such as air sampling, required by some standards.? Provide hearing exams or other medical tests required by OSHA standards.? Post citations and injury and illness data where workers can see them.? Notify within 8 hours of a workpla

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