One of the
essential components of visual experience among human beings is colour.
There is extensive use of colour and
colour designs due to their importance in website design. Ghamari and Amor (2016) contend
that the understanding of colours and their visual enhancement of website
design is the first necessary design among designers. Colour is a powerful
aspect because it shapes how individuals view different things. The perception,
memory and interpretation of things are
influenced by the different things that people see. This explains the importance of colour in
communication.  Richardson et al. (2014) explain that effectiveness of
colour in design is dependent on how well a designer uses colour.

The communication of information from one
individual to another through a medium is known as visual communication. Images
generated from computers and computer design is some of the examples of visual
communication commonly used at present.
The effective use of colour in each of the mediums as Won and Westland (2017) explain is not only dependent
on the strengths and limitations of the medium but also on human factors. The
perception of the audience towards the use of colour is also an essential
factor to consider in colour efficacy. The use of a specific mix of colours should,
therefore, emanate from personal considerations in
terms of design and the medium of communication. A study conducted by Wei et al. (2014) concluded that
there are no specific rules that are applied while using colour in the graphic design. It was further explained that what works well in a certain design
might fail in the next. 

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According to Hanafy and Sanad (2015),
the colour should be used to
enlighten individuals rather than dazzle and be decorative. The intellectual
capacity that should be realised while
using colours should have the ability to enlighten individuals. Proper
allocation of colours is one which relates to
audiences rather than manipulating them. A proper design is one which factors
hue, chroma and shade of the colours that are
used. There are some colours that shout,
but they should be used in a way that calms the audience. Information provided by Richardson et al. (2014) concludes that
designers should use colours in such a way that captures their audience. The
diversity of audiences in terms of age,
gender and culture present the diversity
of using colours and their significance in design. Colour is one of the aspects
that can be used to effortlessly communicate
with an audience depending on their characteristic. Colour can be used
to signal personalisation hence a vital tool for designers.

Gender is among the factors that influence
the perception of colours across
populations. However, Dabner et al. (2017) mention the
influence of gender on colour has been diminishing over the years. The
literature further provides that both men and women prefer cars and houses of
the same colour. The popularity of grey, black, beige, blue and silver has been witnessed over the years. Women in the
society are more flexible to prefer colours in the entire wheel compared to
men. Some colours such as pink and purple are still restricted to men by the
society because they are linked to
feminism. However, in the modern day, men
are wearing more of these colours despite the society limitation. This change
as Wilms and Oberfeld
(2017) content can be linked to the change of roles among men and
women in the society.

Age of individuals is another aspect of
consideration while using colours in design. Individuals from different age
groups have varied preference over colours. While designing, the general rule
is that bright colours are used to reach out to older audiences while younger
individuals are best targeted using cool colours. Amsteus et al
(2015) while conducting research found out that when individuals’ age they tend
to perceive colours being darker which explains their high liking of brighter
colours. The modern generation is more experienced to colours due to their
earlier exposure with crayons. Effects of colours such as glitter, metallic and
pearlescence are preferred among the young individuals compared to older
people. While hues are important to factor across ages, the shade of a
particular colour also has a significant influence. Müller et al (2014) who conducted research to
determine which age group prefer certain shades of blue, it was found out that
individuals aged 13-20 and less than 34 years prefer navy blue a darker shade.
Further in the study it was also discovered that adults above the age of 35
were more inclined to lighter shades of blue which included sky blue and smoky
blue.  The figure 8 below shows the
analysis of colour preference by age groups.

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