onion that are
feelings from values, values from beliefs, beliefs from worldview and worldview
from ultimate allegiance. (Bunkowske 2002)

Beliefs, values
and feelings in the evaluating level are not as unconscious and implicit as the
foundational layers of ultimate allegiance and worldview but not nearly as
accessible for observation and manipulation as behaviors and artifacts in the actualizing
level of human culture. (Bunkowske 2002)

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Actualizing level

The actualizing
level acts on and lives out the reality, fundamental mental mappings and the
perceptions about that reality through the actualizing and foundational layers
of culture. It responds to these mental mappings and perceived realities by
actualizing them. This actualization takes place in the external dimensions of
everyday life. This happens not primarily by deliberate choice but
automatically or at least semi – automatically in response to internal mental
programming. In this way the functions of doing and collecting routinely occur
as concrete contact is made with people and things. The result may be either
positive, neutral or negative as contact between people and people and objects
in the physical, mental and spiritual realm occur (Bunkowske 2002). The
actualizing level acts out of choices that people make when they interact with
God, with gods, with each other, and with the world.

The actualizing
level is openly accessible as people come in contact with other people and
things and intentionally bring their culture into contact with cultures of
other people in their own society and in other societies of people. (Bunkowske

understanding the “Cultural Onion Diagram” developed by Eugene Bunkowske (2002),
it’s easier to comprehend Hofstede’s definition of Culture.

As it was mentioned previously, Geert Hofstede
(1997) has his view on culture as a collective mental programming “it is that
part of our conditioning that we share with other members of our nation,
region, or group but not with members of other nations, regions, or groups”.
His research is large and it is based on the scores obtained from 53 countries
and regions, Hofstede (1980; 1988) summarized five cultural dimensions: (1)
power distance, which is related to the different solutions to the
basic problem of human inequality; (2)
collectivism vs. individualism, which is related to the
integration of individuals into primary groups; (3) femininity vs. masculinity, where a society is called masculine when

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