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Osmosis Lab Report

 

Osmosis allows water to move across cell membranes. Solutions
with different concentrations allows osmosis to happen. Another way osmosis can
occur is when they are separate due to the partially permeable membrane.

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Concentration gradient is when a high number of
particles/solutes move through the membrane to an area with a lower number of
solutes/particles.

 

Equipment list

Potato

Distilled water

250cm3 beaker x2

20% Salt solution

Weighing balance/scale

Risk assessment

salt solution – not a health hazard, avoid contact with eyes

 

Method

First In Beaker A I placed 50cm3 of distilled water in it. I
then placed 50cm3 of 20% salt solution into beaker B. To have to equal sized
potato chips I used a cork borer. In beaker A I placed one chip and in beaker B
I placed the second chip, before doing this they were weighed out. After 30
minutes the potato chip was removed and carefully wiped along a paper
towel.  After this it was weighed out and
calculated if there was a change in the mass before and after the procedure.

In the beginning the chip in Beaker A weighed 2.44g

After the experiment the chip in Beaker A weighed 2.42g

The weight went down by 0.02g

In the beginning the chip in Beaker B weighed 2.59g  

After the experiment the chip in Beaker B weighed 2.15g

The weight went down by 44g

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Finding Ka Lab Report

 

Equipment
List

Burette

Pipette 10cm3

Pipette filler

Weak acid solution :

1)      Propanoic
acid

2)      Methanoic
acid

3)      Ethanoic
acid

PH meter

Small beaker

Risk
Assessment

Propanoic acid-  rinse
If it gets into the eyes, wash of skin, expose the person to fresh air if it is
inhaled.

Ethanoic acid – corrosive, causes burns , irritates the eyes,
irritates cuts

 

Method

First the burette was filled with NaOH solution. The pipette
filler was then used to transfer 10cm3 of the weak acid into a conical flask.
In the conical flask I used a PH meter to find out the PH of the acid to be
recorded down. The PH of the acid was recorded after every 0.5cm3 of NaOH was
added into the conical flask. I repeated the same procedure each time but
changed the weak acids. With the results I recorded and used all the data
found, in to a line graph. I then used the line graph to help me find out what
each acids Ka was by working out their half equivalence points on the graph.

 

Propanoic

Ka= 10?4.8
= 1.58 x 10-5 (Weakest)

Vol NaOH

PH

0

3.13

0.5

3.59

1

3.89

1.5

4.09

2

4.26

2.5

4.39

3

4.51

3.5

4.63

4

4.71

4.5

4.80

5

4.90

5.5

5.00

6

5.12

6.5

5.25

7

5.39

7.5

5.58

8

5.86

8.5

6.47

9

11.01

9.5

11.54

10

11.76

10.5

11.89

11

12.01

 

 

Ethanoic

Ka = 10-4.6
= 2.51 x 10-5

0

3.2

0.5

3.6

1

3.4

1.5

4.1

2

4.2

2.5

4.4

3

4.5

3.5

4.6

4

4.7

4.5

4.8

5

4.9

5.5

5.0

6

5.1

6.5

5.2

7

5.3

7.5

5.5

8

5.8

8.5

6.3

9

10.4

9.5

11.5

10

11.8

10.5

11.8

11

11.9

11.5

12

 

Methanoic

Ka= 10-3.6
= 2.51 x 10-4 (Strongest)

NaOH

PH

0

2.4

0.5

2.6

1

2.8

1.5

2.8

2

3.0

2.5

3.2

3

3.3

3.5

3.4

4

3.5

4.5

3.5

5

3.6

5.5

3.7

6

3.8

6.5

4.0

7

4.1

7.5

4.1

8

4.3

8.5

4.5

9

4.7

9.5

4.8

10

4.9

10.5

7.3

11

11.1

11.5

11.6

12

11.8

12.5

11.9

13

12

 

 

 

 

 

Metal Displacement Reactions Lab
Report

 

 

Equipment
List

Spotting tile

Copper sulfate

Magnesium sulfate

Zinc sulfate

Zinc metal

Copper metal

Magnesium metal

Risk
Assessment:

Copper Sulfate – irritating fumes, causes cough when inhaled,
redness on skin and eyes , burning sensation if ingested.

Zinc sulfate – harmful, irritant , causes damage to the eyes

 

Method

Copper sulfate solution was placed in to 3 spotting tiles.
Magnesium metal was placed in one of these solutions, the copper metal placed
into to the other tile containing copper sulfate solution and the zinc metal
placed in to the last spotting tile containing copper sulfate solution. I
observed the reactions I saw. In the next row of spotting tiles, the magnesium
sulfate solution was placed into them. The 3 metals were then placed again in
to the magnesium sulfate and the observations was recorded down. In the last
row of spotting tiles, magnesium sulfate filled the wells up. The magnesium,
copper and zinc were then added in to each well and was the observed and
recorded.

 

Copper
sulfate

Zinc sulfate

Magnesium
sulfate

Magnesium
metal

Black dots
occurred around the metal strip

The metal
had fizzing bubbles around it with black dots

Nothing

Copper metal

Nothing

Nothing

Nothing

Zinc metal

The metal
strip went fully black

Nothing

Nothing

 

 

Half Equations

The oxygen and hydrogen atoms don’t balance. The water
molecule balances the oxygens. By adding hydrogen ions, it balances the
hydrogens. By adding electrons, it balances the charges.

2 half equations = a redox reaction

Oxidising + Reduction = a redox reaction 

 

Zinc metal and copper sulfate :

When the zinc metal reacts to the copper sulfate it leaves
the metal strip to have a dark black coating. There is a loss of electrons when
the zinc atoms oxidises. There is a gain of electrons when the copper ions
reduce.

Zn = CuS04 à ZnSO4
+ Cu

Zn + Cu2+ à Zn2++
Cu

Znà Zn2
+ 2e-

Cu2+ 2e- à Cu

 

Magnesium metal and copper sulfate:

When the magnesium metal reacted to the copper sulfate it
left dark black spots on the metal and around the metal. The magnesium atoms
give away electrons during this reaction.

Mg + CuSO4 à MgSO4
+ Cu

Mg2+ + 2e-

Cu2+ + 2e- à Cu

Mg + Cu2+ 2e- à mg2+ + Cu + 2e-

 

Magnesium metal and zinc sulfate

 

When the magnesium metal reacted with the zinc sulfate the
metal strip had fizzing bubble with black dots surrounding it. Magnesium is a
very reactive metal.

Mg + ZnSO4 à MgSO4
+ Zn

Mg + Zn2+ à Mg2+
+ Zn

Mg à  mg2 + 2e-

Zn2 + 2e- à Zn

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

D3

 

By changing the PH of the solution, the amino acids change.

Zwitterions

The two functional groups of an amino acids is a amine or a
carboxylic acid group. A zwitterion is when an ion is left with both a positive
and a negative charge, when there has been an internal transfer of a hydrogen
ion.

A chiral is when a carbon is bonded
to four different groups.

Butanoic acid – 2 amino acids

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

     Butanoic
acid – 3 amino acids

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

6 – aminohexanoic acid

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3 – aminohexanoic acid

 

Depending on the R groups, zwitter ion form is achieved at
different PH’s for different amino. An amino acid with a low PH is saturated
with hydrogen ions. As a result of this, molecules that can take a proton takes
it due to being abundant. It will become NH3+ when the N
is taken. COOH is formed when the carboxyl group takes it. When you increase
the PH or add another base it reacts with a proton that is available for
neutralisation.

It will become NH2 once the PH increases and the N
is given away its extra proton. It becomes COO- once bases are added
continuously resulting in no extra protons by the N which means the carboxy
group would have to give their proton away. To attain equilibrium there are
different forms of the same molecule at different PH’s. 

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