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We can observed from figure
1.1, the source node sent a packet through an active node which is
the next hop from source and in between active node and sink node
there is a malicious node, after the attack, the packet is dropped by
malicious node and the packet intended for sink node will not reach
its target destination.

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1.5 Behaviour of malicious
node in vehicular network

In vehicular network, a
malicious vehicle can claims to have an active path to the
destination vehicle and request the routing packets to be routed
through itself before passing to the destination, while the passive
vehicle is malicious and can drop the packet without passing it to
the right destination (Priyanka Sirola, 2014). Bharti (2016)
highlighted packet drop attack as one of the security threats that
affects the performance of VANETs, this treat is potential to cause
catastrophic consequences by violating routing protocol and vital
segments of vehicular network to develop serious problem and
malfunctions (Alper
T. Mizrak, 2009 ).
However, this threat can
leads to problems like delay, suspension of communication route or
even generating erroneous information between the source node and
destination node (Kennedy Edemacu M. E., 2014), these have shown that
information exchange in VANET ought to be secured and save guarded
against malicious node behaviour
(Neji Mensi, 2016).
Hence, security
issue is amongst the serious threats, which can restrict the
applications, performance and functionality of the VANET (Soufiene
Djahel1, 2008).

1.6 Taxonomy of vehicular
ad-hoc network

A Vehicular Ad Hoc Network is
a brand of mobile ad hoc network mainly intended for moving vehicles
to support the wireless communication
(Supinder Kaur, 2016).
to M.Sindhuja (2015), VANET
network consists of moving vehicles as the nodes, each node can be
equipped with On Board Units (OBU) to access the remote services
provided by the network on the road through the RSUs. The
infrastructure of the network consists of the Road Side Unite (RSU)
and Trusted Authority (TA). The TA serves as getaway and provides
control management of the network (Rongxing Lu, 2012). the backbone
support, RSUs integration as well as network connection to internet
are provided by TA, The RSUs connect to TA as shown in figure 1.2,
the communication between the vehicle to vehicle, or between vehicles
to RSUs is achieve through a wireless medium called Wireless
Access in Vehicular Environments
(WAVE) (Saif Al-Sultan, 2014).

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