Personality is one of the foremost
topics that are yet to be characterized and elucidated thoroughly in
psychology. This is because there have been many scientists who tried to make
argument about the meaning of personality. Until recently there is no
description which is agreed by all scientists as the standard definition to
explain the meaning of personality according to their point of views.
However, according to
Eysenck (1967), the word “personality” is derived from the Latin word persona,
which means “mask”, the “apparent suggestion of a person’s character’. For
scientific psychologists such as Eysenck (1967), personality is described as
the characteristics and qualities of a person which are seen as a whole and
which differentiate him or her from other people.
Nonetheless, personality to be put in plain
words, clarify what sort of a person can be namely, introvert, extrovert and
ambivert. These three types of personality which has been vastly used by many
scientists to date are used to exemplify what personality means to them.
Theory of Personality
The theory of personality
type appeared in the work of Swiss psychologist Carl Jung (1921) and two
American women, Katharine Briggs and her daughter, Isabel Briggs Myers. Carl
Jung found that rumor has it that irregular behavior could in fact be
predictable through understanding the fundamental mental functions and attitudes
people preferred which was also discussed by Tieger & Barron-Tieger in 1995
who were also trying to comprehend how ones behavior could be forecasted
through their mentality.
Additionally, in 1921,
Jung’s theory of personality was published in a book called Psychological
Types, hypothesizing that “individuals have mental or psychological preferences
for performing positive tasks, just as they have physical preferences such as a
primary hand” where Tieger & Barron-Tieger (1995) also partially agreed to
the theory found by Jung. When Katharine
read the English translation of the book published in 1923, she figured out
that Jung had beforehand exposed what she has been looking for, so she adopted
his model and began a stern study of his work.
Furthermore, she also made
her young daughter Isabel involved in her quest (c, 1995). Together, the duo
expanded Jung’s psychological type theory and gave it practicality. This
mother-daughter studied under Jung and desired to build up a way to test Jung’s
theory and put it into practice. They achieved their ambition by developing a
psychometric measurement instrument called the Myers-Briggs type indicator.
Apart from the Myers-Briggs
type indicator, there were other personality models that were also build later on and currently being
used are the Five Factor Model and Eysenck’s model of personality which is also
a measuring instrument in many psychological studies.
and McCaaulley (1985) divide the type of personality into Extroversion-Introversion,
Sensing-Intuition, Thinking-Feeling and Judging-Perceiving. On the other hand,
according to Tieger & Barron-Tieger (1995), there are three personality
factors; extroversion and introversion, risk taking and field independence.
Moreover, Allport (1937)
define personality as those aspects of an individual’s behavior, attitude,
beliefs, thoughts, actions and feelings which are seen as typical and
indistinctive of that person and recognized as such by that person and others.
It is further explained that personality is a dynamic organization from the
psychophysics in individual which can also determine one’s adaptation uniquely
toward one’s environment. There are some variables that may influence the
people to create one personality within them.
Characteristics of Extrovert and Introvert
According to Yusoff, Rahim
and Esa (2010), extrovert included characteristics such as excitability,
sociability, chattiness and high amount of emotional expressiveness. Therefore,
extroverts are usually perceived as being energetic, enthusiastic and action
oriented. In contrast, introverts, as the counterpart of extroverts, come out
to be quiet, less assertive and unsociable.
For this reason, Fazeli
(2012) believes that one’s personality not only makes a person different from
others, but it also influences how the individual come close to different tasks.
But looking back at history, the inspiration of extrovert and introvert as type
of personality was firstly appeared in works of Sigmund Freud who was supposed to
be the father of psychology.
Subsequently, Carl Jung
(1921) developed these notions where he considered that if the energy tends to
run outward, then the individual can be characterize as an extrovert. In
disparity, if the energy runs inward, then the individual is characterized as
A British psychologist, Hans
Eysenck, preserves that the behavioral differences between extroverts and
introverts are due to brain psychology. He believes that extroverts want social
activity and enthusiasm because it boosts their level of excitement, in comparison
to introverts who stay away from situations deemed societal to keep smallest
amount of excitement level.
Furthermore, Eysenck based
his separations on introverts and extroverts on changeable degrees of specific
traits, such as excitability, level of activity, liveliness, degree of being
social, and spontaneity. The unique extrovert
is outgoing, likes social gatherings, has many contacts, wants to have people
to converse to, and does not like revising by him-self. He wishes thrill, takes
odds, often sticks his neck out, acts on the prompt of the moment, and is more
often than not an unplanned person. He always has a prepared respond, and normally
On the other hand, Eysenck
(1965) believes the emblematic introvert, is quiet, retiring sort of person, deep
in thoughts, fonds of books rather than people; he is reserved and outlying,
except with close friends. He tends to plan ahead and have doubts the impulse
of the moment. He does not like enthusiasm, takes matters of everyday life with
proper seriousness, and likes a well ordered mode of life.
The characteristics of
extrovert and introvert cannot be used to judge which personality is better. In
case of social life, extrovert may be considered more desirable. It is due to
their open minded characteristics to communicate with many people while
introverts tend to be more silent. In addition, no scholar mention about good
or better personality because it is just the way they express themselves.