meat is consumed all around the world and, over the last few decades, has
increased in popularity in many countries. Among the reasons for this increased
consumption are the relatively low costs of production, the rapid growth rate
of poultry, the high nutritional value of the meat and the introduction of many
new further processed products. Overall, the poultry industry has changed
dramatically over the past 50 years.

Agricultural and Processed Food Products Export Development Authority (APEDA) was
established by an Act passed by the Parliament in December, 1985. APEDA is
mandated with the responsibility of export promotion and development of the
products of floriculture, fresh fruits, vegetables, animal products including
poultry products, processed foods and cereals. The report on export of poultry
and poultry products published by Directorate General of Commercial
Intelligence and Statistics (DGCIS) for the year 2015 – 16 indicates steady
increase during the past few years. During last three years the export of
poultry products has grown on an average 18% per year increasing from Rs. 564
crores in 2013-14 to Rs. 769 crores in 2015-16. The total quantity of poultry
products exported increased from 4,40,000 MT to 6,60,000 MT during this period.
Tuticorin port in Tamil Nadu handled 5,40,000 MT, that is 82% of total poultry
products exported by volume. In the year 2015-16, the major countries to which
the poultry products exported in the order from high to low value are Oman,
Saudi Arabia, Japan, Germany, Maldives, Bahrain, Indonesia, Netherland and

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total, the poultry products are being exported to more than 75 countries all
over the world .The major poultry products exported in the order of value from
high to low is fresh chicken eggs, egg powder, egg yolk powder, frozen chicken
meat and offal, chicken hatching eggs and hatching eggs of other species. Other
poultry products exported from India are frozen meat cuts of chicken, ducks,
turkey and Guinea fowl, fresh eggs of other poultry species and live poultry of
chicken, ducks, geese, turkeys and Guinea fowls.

country has exported 4,49,527.49 MT of Poultry products to the world for the
worth of Rs. 531.65 Crores/ 79.51 USD Millions during the year 2016-17. Secondary processing usually refers to further
processing of the raw carcass into value-added product forms.Although whole
carcasses were the main product form prior to 1980, customer demands for more
convenient food products drove the poultry processing industry toward cut-up
parts and boneless, skinless meat. Just as important, consumers were willing to
spend more for convenience foods and value-added products. Processors also
found an outlet for USDA non-Grade A carcasses. If a part was trimmed due to
defects, the rest of the carcass could be cut into parts and sold at a higher
price per kg.Sausages containing meat mixes including
chicken meat

Chicken meat is often used to partly
substitute the red meats in meat products especially of the raw-cooked type
such as luncheon meat, bologna or hotdogs. In such cases the chicken meat
percentage can vary substantially. As a good manufacturing practice, the
percentage of chicken meat should be indicated for consumer information, as
such products are normally perceived as pork or beef products, not containing
chicken meat. Also some liver sausages can contain larger quantities of chicken
meat. These products are commonly called as “Chicken Liver Sausage”,
although in many cases the liver and animal fats derive from pork.

Sausages and other products with 100%
chicken meat

Besides the use of chicken meat in mixed
red meat products, there are many well established and popular products which
contain chicken meat only. When processed chicken and turkey meat products were
introduced on a broader scale a few decades ago, traditional red meat recipes
where simply modified and red muscle meat was replaced by poultry meat and pork
fat by fat rich chicken skin. For these poultry products such as chicken
frankfurter, chicken bologna etc., non-meat ingredients and the processing
technologies remain basically the same as for the corresponding processed red
meat products. Manufacturers even endeavour to make chicken and turkey sausages similar to red meat
sausages in taste and flavour, but point out the health benefits of poultry
products .

frankfurter and chicken bologna are finely
comminuted products, which can be considered as raw-cooked products . Lean chicken meat provides the proteins
and chicken skin replaces the fat to be finely dispersed in the sausage batter.
Filled in small casings (18-22mm), this typical raw-cooked sausage mix is the
basis for chicken frankfurters, when filled in larger casings (40-60mm), for
chicken bologna. The mix also serves as the basis for products where coarse
chicken meat (either diced or ground) is blended with batter and filled in
casings of 60-80mm or cans. These products may be named chicken or turkey ham
sausage, chicken or turkey roll etc. Chicken meat balls, a product in high demand in the Asian region,
are also of the same category. They are manufactured based on the method used
for traditional meat balls from red meat .

Another chicken meat product, which
resembles the cooked hams made from pork in both manufacture and appearance is
called chicken ham (raw
meat material may come from all parts of the chicken carcass) or chicken breast (in this
case only chicken breast parts should be used). The meat material is tumbled
together with brine containing curing salt, phosphates and spices, and either
pasteurized when filled in casings or moulds or sterilized when filled in cans.
For canned and sterilized chicken products.


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