in this highly-famed novel is constant, and continuous. But first off,
what is the Psychoanalytic criticism?
Psychoanalytic criticism adopts the methods of
“reading” employed by Freud and later theorists to interpret texts.
It argues that literary texts, like dreams, express the secret unconscious
desires and anxieties of the author, that a literary work is a manifestation of
the author’s own neuroses. One may psychoanalyze a particular character within
a literary work, but it is usually assumed that all such characters are
projections of the author’s psyche. (https://public.wsu.edu/~delahoyd/psycho.crit.html)
*Receive text message telling me to simplify and
“Basically, the Psychoanalytical criticism’s
focus was on the development and dynamics of personality, with a special
emphasis on humans being driven by motive and emotions of which we are unaware.
Theorists believe unlocking the unconscious mind was key to understanding human
behavior. This theory implicates that we are influenced by early childhood, and
those childhood experiences influence the unconscious mind throughout our
lives. It’s a special belief that we are shaped by our earliest experiences.”
“It is interpreting the author’s choices of
characters, plot, theme, or even choice of words as a result of the author’s
motives, and never just as “by-chance” or by luck.
“Hi, my name is Mohamed Ali, and today I’m over
at BuzzFeed headquarters to discover and vividly describe two schools of
literary criticism in the novel Brave New World.”
(1 min 40 seconds)
Who is behind the Psychoanalytic criticism?
Freud ( show photo of him ), an Austrian Neurologist and the founder of this
Why did he begin this line of work? He began this work to
treat behavioral problems in his patients. In order to understand what was
behind his patients actions and problems, be began listening to his patients
talk through their problems, of which he concluded that people’s behavior was a
result of their unconscious, going back all the way back to childhood events.
So, what are the Pros of Psychoanalytical
-Well, it emphasizes the importance of childhood
-It can reveal clues to understand symbols,
actions and settings in literary work.
-Allows us to understand and recognize the effect
of the unconscious on their lives.
Take a look at this Iceberg:
Show Super Ego Id Photo
Sigmund Freud separated the mind into 3 parts,
each has its own function, as we can see here, they’re referred to as the Id,
the Ego, and the Superego.
In this Diagram, we can see the Id, which derives
from instinctual patterns. it operates in the unconscious section, and believes
all of your needs should be met immediately, it is impulse, desire, and
pleasure. Then we can see the ego, which is strictly in your conscience
section, and is the decision maker, but ultimately has to live with the
decision it makes. The ego is realistic and is formed based on experiences, and
decides how much of the Id’s urges can be expressed. Then we have the
superego, which is in both sections of consciousness. It is our conscience, and
is built off our sense of morals we have learned as a result of society and
more importantly, our parents and upbringings. The superego can differentiate
between right and wrong, and is generally developed during the age of 3-5.
Okay enough talk about all of this, let’s get to
the main point. How does all of this, tie in, with Brave New World?
with Brave New World
On Page 28, Chapter 3, we learn that Brave New
World’s society has responded to Freud’s theory by abolishing the idea of
family because they see it as psychologically unhealthy. Instead of having offspring
produced through natural procreation, their society has opted to create offspring
through science, born in a lab and organized through age and caste.
In Brave New World society, the very thought of a
mother or father is quickly shot down as they believe that it is useless and
unnecessary. Nobody has a deep emotional relationship and no one gets married.
It seems that Aldous Huxley used his hit novel to take a run at Freud and his
deranged theories. It is also obvious that Huxley believed that if we took
Freud for his theory, we would abandon emotions and deeper relationships, and
opt to instead have one night relationships. They can’t fathom the idea of
having parental figures, but are comfortable with have group orgies.
As Mustapha Mond once
said, “they’re plagued with no mothers or fathers; they’ve got no
wives, or children, or lovers to feel strongly about;”
their society doesn’t have a concept of family. This is due to one of Freud’s psychoanalytical
theory’s focus being on children having parents, and how some of our deepest
psychological disturbances and disorders stem from the anxiety and
unhealthiness of parental-children relationships. Freud tried to show us that
much of one’s unhappiness and neurotic tendencies can be tied back to an unhealthy
dependence and reliance upon parental figures. Aldous Huxley chooses to take
out that whole factor, there’s no mothers or fathers in the child’s life. They don’t
have any fights or psychological unrest that Freud tried to say came with