Therefore Gradgrind’s children had a great curiosity for such things as they had never been able to them during their youth, for instance when tom and Louisa were at the circus Gradgrind was shocked that his children were out associating with the so called vagabonds of the circus, he didn’t understand why tom and Louisa would want anything else when they had facts. Tom and Louisa were probably interested in the circus as it was something different for them getting away from their cold dad and his boring dry facts.

Chapter 4 In chapter 4 we meet Bounderby who is a banker and factory owner. He is a medium man with a beard typical of time. Dickens has used Bounderby in his novel to show that the occasional street urchin on the streets can make it to become successful business man. In the beginning of the text, Dickens use good linguistic term by using the simile sentence saying “Mr Bounderby was as near being Mr Gradgrind’s bosom friend, as a man perfectly devoid of sentiment can approach that spiritual relationship towards an another man perfectly devoid of sentiment”. This simile sentence helps us to understand how close Gradgrind and Bounderby are.

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It says that he is near to being Mr Gradgrind’s bosom friend. To describe that, Gradgrind holds Bounderby close to his heart like a mother grasping her baby to her bosom. Later on in the chapter Bounderby was describing his childhood as a young vagabond, Dickens uses repetition of words “egg-box” to exclaim how bad Boundary’s childhood was. It was said by Bounderby, as he described his grandmother. “She kept a chandler’s shop” and kept me in an egg-box. That was the cot of infancy; and old egg-box”. In this chapter we get to know more about Bounderby and Gradgrind, and how two people with very different childhood grew up to be so very similar Dickens uses antitheses to show this. WE

e also get to meet Mrs Gradgrind who was, (quote from text) “a thin little white, pink-eyed bundle of shawls of surpassing feebleness, mental and bodily”, and who whenever she showed a symptom of coming to life was variably stunned by some weighty piece of fact tumbling on her. Mrs Gradgrind hoped it was a dry ditch, from this quote we see that Mrs Gradgrind is an unwell woman who, when she shows any sign of getting better is beaten back down by her husbands facts. Dickens uses similes and metaphors to describe Mrs Gradgrind; e.g. he describes her as a pink eyed bundle of shawls, reinforcing what he already knew of her physical appearance. Dickens has already told us that she is thin, so the metaphor suggests she is swamped by her clothes making her look even scrawnier.


In conclusion, Dickens uses the first four chapters to show us the main character and introduce the ideas of the novel. This is done by using key linguistic terms and aids like metaphor’s to add to descriptions of people. The first four chapters are used to show u descriptions of the main characters and descriptions of the lives they lead and what kind of people they are and were they live est. This is very helpful as it introduces us to the rest of the story.

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