4. Other Political institutions.
1. Role of Elites and Intellectuals:
They are considered as crucial agents of political modernization. Political theories of Pareto, Mosca and Michels confirm their contribution. These sections of society provide basis to political modernization through their views of ideas.
They promote or oppose these trends. Even bureaucracy remains a sub-part of it. Although they retain a substantial influence on political modernization, their failure to do so severely affects the process.
2. Role of Ideology:
Ideology also plays a significance role in political modernization. This has become more evident now than ever.
The role of Marxism in erstwhile Soviet Union is a case in this regard. It encompasses a complete belief system through which perception of individual could be molded and traditional basis of authority and power could be challenged.
3. Role of Government:
Since most of the aspects of modernization are organized within the purview of government, its significance is obvious. Its powers enable it to do thing that could not otherwise be done. Its legitimate powers act so as to smoothen the pace of modernization.
It must be noted that in the developing countries, the government acts as the most important agency of political modernization.
4. Role of other Institutions:
It includes political parties, educational institutions, pressure groups and electoral process. But, their relative contribution depends partly on societal forces and the kind of aim they keep up for themselves.
Different agencies of political modernization have their own strengths and weaknesses. Only through collaborative efforts political modernization could be brought about in a political system.
An enlightened citizenry with attribute of civic virtue remains a warranted requirement in this regard. For institutions are creations of society to serve its goals.