Rural Census – Socio Economic and Caste Census (SECC).

SECC was conducted by MoRD, Ministry of Urban Development,
Ministry of Housing and Urban Poverty Alleviation, The Office of the Registrar
General and Census Commissioner and the State Governments.

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SECC provides data to differentiate the socio-economic
status of households on the basis of  housing, educational status, status of women, landholding,
differently abled, occupation, possession of assets, SC/ST households, incomes

Govt has decided to use the SECC data in all its progrmmes
besides using for housing purpose, education and skill development, MGNREGA,
National Food Security Act etc.

Sumit Bose Committee in its report favoured using SECC-2011
data for the rural development schemes.

What is the difference between Census 2011 and Socio Economic Census 2011?

The duration of Census 2011
and SECC 2011 is different. Census 2011, was conducted during 9th to 28th
February 2011 while Socio Economic Caste Census 2011 was largely carried out in
2011 and 2012 with a few states taking enumeration and verification in 2013

Individual information gathered
under the Census Act, 1948,( Census 2011 is conducted under Census Act,1948 not
SECC) are kept confidential. While the SECC, 2011 requires putting such
statistics (except for caste-related data) in the public domain.

Features of SECC

1.      SECC
2011 is the first paperless census in India.

Household data was taken from the National
Population Register along with the temporary identification number.

At each stage there was an opportunity for
transparency and grievance redressal.

SECC methodology defines poverty through
deprivation, instead of consumption.

SECC takes caste into account for the first time
since 1931.

Objectives of SECC 2011

The SECC, 2011 has 3 major objectives:

1. Households to be ranked based on their
socioeconomic status. State Governments can then prepare a list of families
living below the poverty line.

2.  To
obtain authentic information about castewise population of the country.

3. To obtain authentic information regarding
the socioeconomic condition, and education status of various castes and
sections of the population

Figure- Process of conducting SECC

SECC parameters are based on the recommendation of
following committees 

1.NC Saxena committee (for rural areas)- Committee suggested design of new BPL
census and recommended a three-fold classification of households

1.      Excluded-
It identified the parameters to automatically exclude certain households. Some
parameters Are pucca house with four or more rooms, a car, washing machine,
fridge and two- wheeler.

Automatically included – Those facing certain
residential, social or occupational vulnerabilities, such as homeless or living
in informal housing; households with no able-bodied persons or adults or groups
like beggars, rag pickers or sanitation workers.

3.      Others
-The remaining households will be ranked using 7
Deprivation Indicators. (Mentioned Below)


2.SR Hashim committee (for
urban areas)- The Planning Commission appointed the Hashim Committee Expert
Group to identify the methodology to conduct the SECC in urban areas.

Information collected at the level of the individual and
household, include- Occupation, Education, Disability, Religion, SC/ST Status,
Name of Caste/Tribe, Employment, Income and source of income, Assets, Housing,
Consumer Durables and Non-Durables, Land.

Deprivation Indicators

Rural census, or SECC, depicted deprivation using seven

1.      Households
with a kuchha house;

Without an adult member in working age;

Headed by a woman and without an adult male in
working age;

With a disabled member and without able bodied

Of Scheduled Castes/ Scheduled Tribes (SC/ST);

Without literate adults over 25 years; and

7.      The
landless engaged in manual labour.

If the household is deprived in many number of parameters,
the poverty will be worst


Findings of SECC 2011 (Rural)

SECC 2011,
released in 2015 indicates that out of 24.39 crore households in the country,
17.91 crore lived in villages and among these, 10.69 crore were considered as
deprived households.

Of the total
rural household, 18.5 % belong to scheduled caste households and 11 % belong to
the scheduled tribe household.

Nearly 30% of the household have two deprivations, 13%
have three deprivations. Only 0.01% have all seven deprivations. 48.5% of all
rural households suffer from at least one deprivation indicator. Landless
households engaged in manual labour are more endangered.


Out of  total 17.9
crore households in rural India, 75 per cent of  the household’s monthly income of the
highest-earning member is less than Rs.5,000.

• Around 25 per cent of the rural households still do not have
a mobile phone

• Around 25 per cent rural households do not have access to
irrigation facility.

Agriculture as the backbone of rural India

SECC data indicates that 31.26 per cent of the total rural
households are still broadly identified as poor where the main earner has an
insecure and uncertain source of income. Agriculture is critical for those who
live below the poverty line, as there is an uncertainty from the harvesting
point of view.

Issue of Farmer distress

Landless families, small and marginal farmers are getting
poorer and more engaged in manual labour.  Farm size have grown smaller over the period
of time.  Farmer distress has kept on

Construction sector and employment

Construction jobs have grown 
fast between 2004-05 and 2011-12. But since 2011-12 Construction jobs
are growing more slowly. Further private investment in Construction sector has
fallen due to rising Non performing assets of the banks.

Advantages of SECC 2011

1.      The
household data can be utilised by planners of programmes at State, district,
Block, Gram Panchayat and village levels.

2.      BPL
data tells us how many are poor and SECC tells us who are those poor? it is a
more concerned with ensuring the right person gets the benefit.

3.      The
results of the SECC would be used for various other developmental uses in the

4.      It
is expected that the data base provided by SECC would be used for decentralized
governance, planning and development.

5.      Checks
and balances at several levels starting from the enumeration stage, to public
scrutiny at the Gram Sabha level.

Issues with SECC 2011

1.      Delay
in the release of SECC data turned  the
major issue, due to which states have to rely on BPL data which was highly
inadequate for identifying the beneficiaries of NFSA (National Food Security
Act) 2013.

The errors of omission (excluding those who are
poor) and commission (including those who are not poor) are still reported to
be there in SECC data.

There are inconsistencies between the data obtained from SECC
2011 and already existing data from sources like NSSO etc.

Critics of national food security act say that providing food
security benefit to 75% of the rural household is faulty as according to the SECC
2011 data only 50% of the rural household are deprived.




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