3. Teachers for specific subjects and for art and vocational schools.
4. Teachers for Further Education. Primary School Teachers:
These teachers are trained in training schools. General Certificate of Education is the minimum qualification for the admission. The minimum age for admission is 18 years.
The duration of the training is of two years. Besides professional subjects, education is also given in general courses. Training is necessary for teaching in a nursery and primary school.
Secondary School Teachers:
Of these teachers, training is compulsory. These teachers are called trained graduate teachers. After training they may teach in a secondary school or in a university. The duration of training is of one year. Teachers’ training departments of universities usually train teachers.
Teachers of Specific Subjects and of Arts and Vocational Schools:
Separate training institutions are organised for giving training in such subjects as arts, painting, music, dancing, physical education and domestic science. The certificate received from the Royal College of Music and Royal College of Arts are considered equivalent to certificates received from training institutions.
The duration of training of these subjects is not the same. For physical education and domestic science three years’ training and for arts and music four years’ training are required. The General Certificate of Education is a minimum qualification for admission.
Teachers for Further Education:
For such teachers experience in work concerned is considered as equivalent to training. Experienced persons in various industrial and commercial institutions are appointed as teachers for Further Education in the related subjects. For this, special training is not necessary. Experience in work is especially emphasised.
According to the advice of National Advisory Council, the Education Ministry has prescribed the minimum qualifications for teachers. This minimum qualification for teachers is only the work-experience in the subject concerned.
Selection of Trainees:
There is no formal method for selection of trainees. The women-trainees for specific subjects are selected from women who have completed their general education and have worked for one or two years in the industrial and commercial organisations concerned.
The male trainees are directly selected after they have completed their minimum general education. The teachers’ association also co-operates in the training of teachers. This association organises counseling for prospective trainees.
Appointment of Teachers and Their Service Conditions:
The appointment of teachers in Great Britain is neither made by the Education Ministry nor by the Local Education Authorities. It is true that the Local Education Authorities give grants to Endowed and Aided schools, but they do not interfere with the appointment of teachers. Generally, the managing committee of a school appoints a teacher on the prescribed service conditions.
In the aided schools the manager appoints the teacher, but in the school under a voluntary organisation the teachers are appointed by the managing committees. Local Education Authorities and Associations of Teachers co-operate in the formulation of service rules which are determined in terms of the recommendations of the Burnham Committee.
The Education Act of 1944 has already incorporated the recommendations of the Burnham Committee. Thus teachers’ position is generally very safe. Ordinarily, Local Education Authorities make service rules which the teachers accept. On three months’ notice a headmaster and on two months notice a teacher may be removed from service.
But, before removing from service approval of the Local Education Authorities is necessary. Generally, a teacher is removed on certain charges only at the end of the session.
The whole removal proceedings are kept secret till the decision is finally approved by the Local Education Authority concerned. The removal of a teacher is never advertised. This is just to help the removed teacher to get a teaching job elsewhere easily.
A teacher is removed only when his activities are not in the interest of the school. At first the teacher is warned, and if the warning does not lead to change of attitude in the teacher, he is charge-sheeted. If the teacher fails to give satisfactory explanation, he is removed from the service. The Teachers’ Association, too, does not want that an undesirable teacher should remain in the school. The Education Ministry also acts against such a teacher and cancels his licence.
If some injustice is done against some teacher, the Teachers’ Association fights against it. The Local Education Authorities also fight against the injustice done to a teacher. Thus, it appears that the service conditions of a teacher in Great Britain are quite satisfactory.
The teacher gets three months vacation during a year and he gets medical leave with pay. If necessary, the medical leave may be extended on the recommendation of the Local Education Authorities. The teachers is granted loan as well.
According to the Act of 1944, the Education Ministry prescribes the salary. There are some salary advisory committees to advise the Education Ministry about fixation of salaries. There is a committee represented by Teachers’
Association, training colleges, education departments and Local Education Authority to advice on the salary of teachers of training colleges and universities. Sir Henry Pelham, Secretary to the Education Ministry, was the president of this committee. Recommendations of this committee have been accepted for future guidance.
There is a little variation in the salaries of headmaster, male-teachers and lady-teachers. The salary is fixed on the annual basis which is divided into 12 parts, one part for each month. On acquisition of some special qualifications teachers are given some additional increments.
There is a little difference in the pay of headmasters of rural and urban areas. There is a difference between salaries of training college teachers and university-teachers. The Burnham Committee has done much to remove the disparity in salaries of teachers.
Teachers enjoy great respect. Their services are secure.