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2. Negative Reinforcer:

A negative reinfor­cer is a stimulus or event when its ces­sation or termination is contingent upon a response, increases the likelihood that the response will occur again.

3. Primary Reinforcer:

Primary reinforcer is one that is effective for an untrained subject. It does not require any special previous training in order to strengthen behaviour. The first time a primary rein­forcer is made contingent upon a response, it will begin to strengthen that response. For example, a food for a hungry organism and a water for a thirsty organism.

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4. Secondary Reinforcer:

Secondary rein­forcer, unlike the primary reinforcer, does not work naturally. For it to become effec­tive the learner must have had experience with it. For this reason secondary reinforcers are called as learned or conditioned reinforcers or responses. Stimuli become secondary reinforcers in operant condi­tioning by being paired with the primary reinforcers.

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