The aim of our education to-day is to effect an all-round development of an individual’s personality and to make him a responsible and able citizen. In order to achieve this aim, it is necessary to introduce revolutionary changes in the present education system.

The education has to be made completely practical and utilitarian. This ideology had given birth to basic education which was introduced throughout the country. Hence, efforts were made to effect changes in the courses of training schools and basic training schools.

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Besides, efforts have also been made to introduce changes in the courses of B .Ed, and M.Ed., examinations, etc., with the view to ‘bring in co-ordination between life and education.

(2) Disparity between the Basic and Previous Curriculum:

There being two types of schools—the basic schools and the non-basic one—two kinds of training institutions in the country are imparting training in different courses. In the courses of basic training school, special emphasis is laid on practical work and social life and it has a rural bias, while in non-basic training schools emphasis is laid on principles relating to knowledge. It also lays emphasis on various teaching methods and has an urban bias.

According to the recommendations and suggestions of various Committees and Commissions it will be desirable to prepare a new curriculum incorporating the special features of both the systems which, under the prevailing conditions, may prove more useful.

Accordingly, in the university education and in the curriculum of B.Ed., and L.T., etc. emphasis will have to be reduced on theory while more importance will have to be attached to the practical training. The course will also have to be increased. The Viswa-Bharati, the Rajasthan universities and some others are trying to pattern their curriculum to a large extent on this basis.

(3) Narrowness of Training Courses:

The courses of B.Ed, and L.T. were prescribed at a time when basic education had not come to existence. Importance at that time was mainly attached to theory of the knowledge of principles. It is because of this reason that the curricula of these examinations needs to be amended and widened.

Moreover, success will not be achieved if, besides the amendment of curricula, the period of training is not increased in proportion to increase in the courses. Although the B.Ed, course has been enlarged and made comparatively more practical yet the period of training has not been increased. Under these circumstances the problem will not be solved by only enlarging the course.

The Secondary Education Commission had this factor in view and recommended the extension of the period of B.Ed course to two years. But this had not so far become possible due to education expansion policy of the government.

Under the present circumstances some success may be achieved by implementing the three years’ degree course. A three years’ B.A. (Education) course may be provided.

For training practical teaching experience, the schools in rural areas should be selected or the students be kept under the supervision of trained teachers of rural schools for sometime, where, besides gaining teaching experience, the students may also gain a practical knowledge of preparing the progress- report and the use of audiovisual equipments for children.

They will also get an opportunity there to participate in co- curricular activities and get acquainted with the conditions of rural society. In this way the trainingcourses may be enlarged and made more utilitarian.

It is worth mentioning here that the above problems do not relate to higher secondary schobls1 only. The junior high- schools and primary school teachers, too, do not get enough training, because the courses at normal schools last only for about a year or so.

It is necessary also for the teachers of junior high schools also that they should acquire specialised training in some sphere of education. Besides, some experts are of the opinion that training period of these teachers should also be extended to two years’ duration.

(4) Presence of Untrained Teachers in Colleges and Universities:

The teachers taking graduate and post-graduate classes in universities and colleges are mostly untrained. It is true that they are experts in their subjects yet to possess the knowledge of a subject is one thing, while having the technique of teaching that subject is another. There may be deficiency in them in the matter of method of teaching.

Therefore experts are of the opinion that the teachers in universities and colleges also should know the technique of giving lectures, explaining the subject and inspiring students towards the acquisition of new knowledge. Therefore, some sort of training is also necessary for them.

(5) Narrowness of Post-Graduate Training Course:

The main post-graduate course in education is the M.Ed. The main aim of this examination is to province one with specialised knowledge of education for becoming administrators or teachers in training colleges and teachers of higher standard.

But it is regretted that due to narrowness of the course the desired results are not being achieved and the present needs are not being fulfilled in a satisfactory manner. Therefore, the M .Ed, course should not remain an extension of B.Ed., but instead, be divided into three parts compulsory, optional and oral. Under each of them it is necessary to give detailed instructions in the following subjects:

(i) Compulsory:

Educational statistics, research, knowledge of elements of education, educational psychology, present system of education and courses in foreign countries and a comparative study of rules regarding educational administration.

(ii) Optional:

Specialised knowledge in a particular branch of education.

(iii) Oral:

Determining the success in the above subjects through written examinations alone is not enough. There should be a viva-voce test also.

(6) Research:

The work of training institutions should not be limited to giving training only. The Secondary Education Commission has also recommended that the training institutions should also be charged with the responsibility of carrying on research work relating to education.

The assistance of student-teachers and teachers of secondary schools may be taken in research work relating to the elements of education.

Although research is being done on this subject in the country but there is a need of research on social education, practical work load on teachers, vocational guidance and conditions of teachers, etc.

Very little research work has been done in the sphere of education in India, but it has been found that various research centres carry on work on almost the same subject.

(7) Lack of Uniformity in Training Institutions and Their Diplomas and Certificates:

Uniformity in the standard of the curricula of training institutions is necessary for the development and progress of training. The duration of training should be the same and the certificates awarded by them, too, should have equal value and recognition.

Side by side it is also necessary to remove disparity in the standards of different institutions. In the absence of parity, the expected enthusiasm is not witnessed among the teachers. Sometimes even the institutions of education and universities of the same State show disparity in the standard of teacher’s training course.

To remove this inadequacy the Secondary Education Commission has recommended that post-graduate training and under­graduate training should be controlled by universities and state institutions, respectively. In order to maintain co­ordination in both the standards, it is also desirable that a close contact is maintained between the two departments.

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