Since 1997 evolution of
Bluetooth technology opens a new path for Internet of Things. From classic
Bluetooth to smart Bluetooth including Bluetooth 5.0 allowing designers to make
innovative solutions. Late 2016, the new improved version Bluetooth 5.0 gives
new enhancement and benefits. Also, Bluetooth Low energy (BLE) was introduced
to the society.

 BLE uses the 2.4 GHz ISM band, frequency
hopping transceiver to combat fading and interference and provides many FHSS
carriers. To minimize transceiver complexity, BLE uses binary frequency
modulation. It employs two multiple access schemes. Those are Frequency
division multiple access (FDMA) and time division multiple access (TDMA). In
the FDMA scheme, BLE uses Forty (40) physical channels, separated by 2 MHz. Three
of them are used as primary advertising channels other are used as secondary
advertising channels and as data channels. The major improvements of BLE are:
Slot Availability Mask (SAM), 2 Msym/s PHY for BLE, BLE Long Range, High Duty
Cycle Non-Connectable Advertising, BLE Advertising Extensions, BLE Channel
Selection Algorithm #2.

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Previous Bluetooth technology
separates Bluetooth and BLE, only the user can choose either BLE or Bluetooth.
Now it is a single feature. Both include device discovery, connection mechanism
and connection establishment. Newest version has enhanced data rate 2.1Mbps by
doubling the amount of data device can transfer and high-speed operation up to
54 Mb/s with the 802.11 AMP. This reduces the time required to transmit and
receive data which gives the benefits of lower average current consumption. All
the Bluetooth 5 PHY devices are compatible with Bluetooth4.x devices which has
maximum data rate 1Mbps.

Bluetooth5 increases the range
by four. They achieved this task using another PHYs called LE coded PHY in
addition to 2M PHY. It has 1M PHY rate. But the payload is coded with 500kbps
or 125kbps. This uses different packet format and bit stream processing for Rx
and Tx operations. Receiver has a capability to correct bit errors upon
reception because at the Tx side they use forward error correction to the
packet. Then pattern mapper is applied to the packet which increase efficiency
of the communication. This improves packet error rate. Bluetooth5 increases
transmit power by 10x. it has 20dB transmit power while previous version has
10dB power. Channel Selection Algorithm #2 improves the interference tolerance
of the Bluetooth radio and allows the radio to limit the minimum number of RF
channels the radio can use in high interference environments. When limiting the
minimum number of channels to 15 it should be possible to increase the TX power
above the +10 dBm limit. By achieving these changes, they achieved Rx
sensitivity which increases the range.

Another major
improvement of new version of Bluetooth was advertising (beaconing) capacity. Beacons
are transmitters which can transmit small message to all other BLE enabled
devices. New improvements in Advertising Data Set feature allows to send
multiple unique advertisement data sets with unique interval. It can detect
when a scan request is made by a remote device and report the request to the
application level. Bluetooth5 has 3 primary and 37 secondary advertising
channels and their payload sizes are 31B and 255B respectively

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