Since a long time ago, and until now, there has been a huge segregation of those who don´t look, talk, act or think like most of the population does. If someone is different, the probability of it being a reason for mistreating the person is bigger than the one of accepting it in an enormous way. The year is 1948, and even though this practice wasn´t new, it was getting out of control and it was increasing non-stop; this practice was called apartheid, most commonly known as racism. This was a system of racial segregation implemented by the National Party in 1948, in which races meant everything to society: your race determined your lifestyle.  The over-all supreme race was the white one, because they were majority, and ever since the 1900s, minorities have been treated as inferiors just for the fact of being less. Society was divided in classes, you were either white or black. This apartheid separated both races in every possible way: from school, to transportation, eating facilities, health centers, and even restrooms. It was impossible for any race, other than the white one, to have a common lifestyle, people couldn’t walk on the streets without being stared as intruders if they were colored. Black people were labeled as a lower class, as worthless beings who weren’t deserving of a good place to sleep. Meanwhile, white people were considered the superior race, they even started to say that blacks weren’t part of South Africa, that they were foreigners, when they were the invasors to begin with. Whites and their apartheid made black people feel no longer at home, in their own birthplace.If the apartheid were to be summarized in two words, they would be: white supremacy.this fact explains how it was easier to the whites to use violence against the blacks, because they didn´t consider them part of their society. So pretty much the apartheid meant white domination and control over the black danger.The blacks had to live like the victims of the whites, but it is statement that the violations and a big number of victims of violations of human rights were from other parts of Africa and not only south Africa. In 1943 Nelson Mandela, Oliver Tambo, Walter Sisulu formed a youth league dedicated to make the African National Congress (ANC) more aggressive, The Communist Party also gained force with the miners and after the creation of organizations focused in blacks, the black consciousness started. The African National Congress (ANC) and The Pan Africanist Congress (PAC) started in 1960, they started this process of making loud their voice and making the whites know that they were there, so they focus to maintain their presence in the country, sabotage and make acts of violence against the regime of apartheid and they tried some tactics like the guerrilla tactic and to rally international support against the inequalities.During 1960 the Africans tried to express their culture and nationalism by using a hairstyle, clothes and specific holidays. By this year the children and teenagers were living in an Africa dominated for racism, and by this year including the blacks were in process. This period was characterized by decolonization and cold war. The process of Decolonization only served to reinforce the hate to whites and to ensure that the times would change and the days were the whites rule was going to over and that south Africa would be ruled by the black people. Thus, in this same year thanks to the “cold war” every opposition was labelled like communist, so opposition was illegitimate and criminalized, so that is why the movement wasn’t a thing yet but later on with the support of other African countries, they articulated their problems like a movement against colonialism and imperialism, sometimes it was qualified as socialism.In 1960 not only external issues and processes were happening, with the exploitation of resources and the frequently violations of Human Rights, the liberation movements adopted a violent struggle with weapons and thanks to these black oppositions, they inspire nationalist movements all around Africa that ended with the European colonies by the end of 1960, some became influenced by China or by the Soviets.After the falling of the liberation movements in 1960, South Africa lived a pacific time inside South Africa and it helped and participated as a buffer with Angola, Mozambique, Rhodesia and Namibia, simultaneously organizations started to emerge to influence the black consciousness.The Anti-Apartheid liberalism had influenced in different organizations like the National Union of South African Students (NUSAS) that wanted to involve black people in their normal activities and lives, and some Anti-apartheid liberalist wanted to host a specific university for black people but it was not allowed because it seemingly non-political religious character to have more blacks than whites.In 1970 the apartheid, the African leaders in jail. Africa was facing a solid regime with and increasing economy, a violent and a bloody one, so the movement wasn’t interested in make it more so that is why in Africa they maintained the nonviolence, because it made a future and a government possible to build.By 1988 the government was already having secret negotiations with Nelson MandelaBlacks and whites wanted to negotiate, they believed that overthrowing the government by the force wasn’t practical, the blacks always looked for the opportunity to start talking.The period from February 1990 changed the logic and the rules, written or unwritten, governing the contest for power in South Africa. The Nationalist had their last election and then Mandela came with a formula: release of prisoners, agreement to talk without preconditions and the renunciation of violence.The next four years saw intensive negotiations towards a democratic transitionThere was an expectation that the Commission would make an investigation of Human Rights violations that were caused, for example the denial of freedoms, remove people from their land, the bad treatment of workers and discrimination in areas like education and work opportunities.One of the factors that made possible the dramatic break of the Apartheid was the change in whites opinion. The majority of whites remained quiet to stay safe.As the political conflict grew and gained intensity, the activism also grew. In the 1990s there were more violations of Human Rights.Nobel prize winner, Bishop Desmond Tutu and others worked to free Mandela from jail, and they did it in 1990 and eventually South Africa and the world pressured to end this regime and it happened.One of the most remarkable events of recent African history was that in 1994 Nelson Mandela became the first black president and he changed the things in South Africa for better.

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