Since 1980 they have always been existence of the continuation of social class inequalities in health and social care. It all applies to health including expectations of life, general level of health, infant and maternal mortality. The failure to close this social gap it is disgrace to some people, they could claim for so long as these parameters are improving in all levels of society there is no cause of concern. A report from National Statics shows that despite 67 years of the NHS they remain marked differences in all parameters of health across the social classes. 1 The gap of women living longer that man its now closing.  However, it is complicated by the inequality between local areas which increased over the period of two decades.

Health inequalities are differences between group due to people, geographical, biological or other factors. They have huge impact between the richest and poor society in UK.

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Health inequalities are:

·         Poverty

Since 1980 reports have recognise link between health and poor poverty. People who live in low income household are more likely living in a poor-quality house, less money for heating, maintaining their homes, no warm clothes and poor diets. It can affect by person’s mental wellbeing for example stress can reduces your good health by worrying how you going to pay your bills or survive on a low income.


·         Lifestyle choices

Smoking, drinking alcohol, lack of exercise and poor diet can be a risk to your good health. Other studies and research shows that people in poorest groups they make the worst health choices. For example, poorest people smoke and drink alcohol because there are trying to get rid of the stress in their households.



·         Hereditary factors

In our lives there is a health link between family history and individuals’ health. Even though genes can increase person likelihood of developing certain condition for example environment, lifestyle choices and coronary heart disease.


·         Gender

Males who does not have things that are necessary for a pleasant life such as enough money, food or good living conditions there have life expectancy 9.0 years shorter than those males who are facing poverty that keeps them from not having enough food or shelter. Smaller life of their health they also spend it on good health.

Other reason men take part in more risk taking such as sports, not visiting their GP to seek preventative care and make poorer lifestyle choices such as consuming more alcohol which leads them to lower life expectancy and higher rates of early death.


Female who does not have things that are necessary for a pleasant life such as enough money, food or good living conditions there have life expectancy 6.9 years shorter (measuring by range) those females who are facing poverty that keeps them from not having enough food or shelter. Females can also expect to spend 16.7 percentage points less of their life in good health.

Other reasons female smoke more than what man does, they take greater role for caring children and elderly family members which increases stress and affect your personal health, also increase risk of being poor.


·         Race

Cultural traditions from most of the population they have poor health than the overall population however some minority fare much worse than others.


Social inequality

It is the magnitude to which there are differences between groups in society such as morbidity rates, mortality, life expectancy, unemployment and annually detail poverty.

Income and wealth

In United Kingdom inequality it is an issue in Scotland and the UK even though most people agree that society should aim to be more equal, it is not possible to complete equality within capitalist society. It may be argued to what matters more is the extent of inequality, gap size between the wealthiest and least wealthy. Other political argues that if the inequality gap become too big it may increase social unrest in future.

Income it is supposed to cover persons earnings from their employment, pensions etc wealth it is supposed to cover income but the total of a person’s value for example house, money in the bank and shares etc.

The Gini Coefficient it is attempting to measure income inequality with a society and allow estimate of the similarities between countries

Trends in equality

Gini Coefficients it shows income inequality in the UK increase over the years. Before 1979, inequality in United Kingdom was below by 30% which means was not significant high. From 1980 onwards, it began to rise reaching around 35% until the recession which started in 2008. Inequality fell in UK for the two years of recession (2008-10). 4

Rising inequality across the developed world

In total of 30 countries in developed world, United Kingdom has the fifth most unequal incomes but in terms of wealth it is equal. Other top fifth countries have 40 percent of country income and 60 percent of country wealth, the bottom fifth countries have 8 percent of country income and 1 percent of country income.

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