Sjöwall, D., Bohlin, G., Rydell, A. M., & Thorell, L. B. (2017). Neuropsychological deficits in preschool as predictors of ADHD symptoms and academic achievement in late adolescence. Child Neuropsychology, 23(1), 111-128.Polanczyk, G. V., Willcutt, E. G., Salum, G. A., Kieling, C., & Rohde, L. A. (2014). ADHD prevalence estimates across three decades: an updated systematic review and meta-regression analysis. International journal of epidemiology, 43(2), 434-442.Klein, M., Stein, J. L., of the Psychiatric, A. W. G., Børglum, A., Faraone, S. V., Thompson, P. M. & Franke, B. (2017). 100-Investigating the Overlap between Common Genetic Factors for ADHD Risk and Brain Volume Measures. Biological Psychiatry, 81(10), S42.DuPaul, G. J., & Stoner, G. (2014). ADHD in the schools: Assessment and intervention strategies. Guilford Publications.References · Environmental factors. Studies show a link between cigarette smoking and alcohol use during pregnancy and children who have ADHD. Exposure to lead as a child has also been shown to increase the likelihood of ADHD in children· Genetics. Research shows that genes may be a large contributor to ADHD. ADHD often runs in families and some trends in specific brain areas that contribute to attention.There are several factors believed to contribute to ADHD:Causes· Self-management, education programs and assistance through schools or work or alternative treatment approaches· Behavioral therapy· Medications, including stimulants, nonstimulants and antidepressantsADHD is managed and treated in several ways: Treatment· Interrupting others.· Difficulty taking turns, waiting or sharing.· Acting without regard for consequences, blurting things out.· Impatience.Signs of impulsivity include:· Difficulty doing quiet tasks or activities.· Touching or playing with everything.· Non-stop talking.· Fidgeting and squirming, having trouble sitting still.Signs of hyperactivity include:· Daydreaming or wandering with lack of motivation.· Not listening or paying attention when spoken to.· Difficulty focusing attention or completing a single task or activity.· Becoming bored with a task quickly.· Becoming easily distracted, and jumping from activity to activity.Signs of inattention include:SymptomsWith treatment, most people with ADHD can be successful in school, work and lead productive lives. Researchers are using new tools such as brain imaging to better understand the condition and to find more effective ways to treat and prevent ADHD.Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a condition in which characterized by inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. ADHD is most commonly diagnosed in young people, according to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). An estimated 9% of children between ages 3–17 have ADHD. While ADHD is usually diagnosed in childhood, it does not only affect children. An estimated 4% of adults have ADHD.SummaryADHD can be managed using diet and medication.Many famous people have been diagnosed with ADHD. Justin Timberlake, for example, had ADHD mixed with OCD but this did not deter him writing music and winning the Grammy. Jamie Oliver, a famous chef, had ADHD that he managed using diet by eating healthy and is now a proponent of healthier lunch food in schools. Will Smith who is a renowned actor and singer, was diagnosed with ADHD and this posed a big problem in his academics. (Klein, et al. 2017). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is most common in children and young adults, but the symptoms are known to prevail into adulthood. Children with the condition are often very active and find difficulty concentrating. As such, their school work is extensively affected as well as their social lives. The most common cause of ADHD is genetics, which means that ADHD is hereditary. The Imbalance between neurotransmitters in the brain is also causing the disorder. The diagnosis is ADHD is centered on the child behavior and the mental development of the patient, ruling out the side effects of medications and other psychiatric disorders. European countries the diagnosis criteria used is ICD 10 while in America the method used is DSM 5 (DuPaul & Stoner, 2014). There is an investigation currently underway on the use of quantitative electroencephalography for diagnosis of ADHD. The disorder can be managed using behavioral therapy, diet, and medication especially stimulant medications. There should be an allocation of sufficient funds for research and development of alternative methods of treatment. Parents and the society should also be informed on how to deal with children and young adults with ADHD (Polanczyk, et al. 2014). Several ADHD formulated models suggest that the disorder associated with the impairment of the dopamine and the norepinephrine systems. The brain structure of children with ADHD is relatively small compared to other children with a notably high-volume decrease in the prefrontal cortex located on the left side. The neurotransmitter pathways, especially the dopamine transporters increases as a result of the brain adaptation to stimulants. ADHD symptoms result from inadequacy to perform some executive functions such as controlling attention, controlling inhibitory operations and controlling the working memory (Sjöwall, et al. 2017). The rate of maturation of the brain and the ever-increasing demand for executive functions are responsible for the late manifestation of ADHD symptoms. Most of the diagnosed cases have unknown causes, and medical practitioners attribute ADHD to the synergy between genes, social factors, and the environment. However, some cases have reported the condition is caused by brain trauma and a previous infection. Over 75% of the diagnosed cases classified that the disorder is acquired from the parents. As such, if one has siblings with ADHD, they are more susceptible to develop the condition. The genetic makeup of an individual determines whether the symptoms will be persistent in adult life or whether they will fade away as the patient grows older (Sjöwall, et al. 2017). Consumption of alcohol during pregnancy may result in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders that may include ADHD. Exposing pregnant mother to tobacco smoke may result in problems with the central nervous system of the unborn child. In some cases, ADHD may be as a result of problems with the society and not the patient. An example is very high academic expectations of the community for the children and dysfunctional families (Klein, et al. 2017). The social construct theory indicates that since the people dictate what is normal and what is not, the judgment of the community towards individuals may be the diagnostic criteria. As the record shows, few girls are diagnosed with hyperactivity, impulsivity or inattention, but they are often diagnosed with intellectual problems. Most of the symptoms of hyperactive-impulsive ADHD fade away as one grows old and develop into inner restlessness. As suggested by the signs, people suffering from this condition have poor social skills as they cannot interact with people socially and find it difficult to form and maintain friendships and other relationships. Another reason for poor social skills is the inability to process verbal and non-verbal communication correctly (Klein, et al. 2017). Also, they tend to lose concentration and drift very easily during conversations rendering them incapable of holding dialog for an extensive amount of time. ADHD patients have difficulty learning and understanding social cues and will, therefore keep to themselves to avoid any form of social interaction. Over 60% of the time, ADHD in most children is followed by other associated disorders such as learning disabilities, Tourette syndrome, oppositional defiant disorder, primary vigilance disorder, sluggish cognitive tempo among other diseases (Polanczyk, et al.2014). Sleep disorders may result from the medication given to the patients and may be accompanied by bed wetting.ADHD is grouped into three divisions that include predominantly inattentive ADHD, predominantly hyperactive-impulsive ADHD and combined type ADHD. Predominantly inattentive ADHD include ADHD-PI and ADHD-I while predominantly hyperactive-impulsive ADHD comprises of ADHD-PH and ADHD-HI. Children diagnosed with ADHD inattentive have all the below-mentioned symptoms except for those that are symptoms of other medical problems or psychiatric conditions. These symptoms include the inability to stay focused on one activity for long, being distracted easily, forgetting details and information. These children may also become bored very quickly unless they are participating in something very captivating. Moreover, they find it difficult to complete a given task, say their assignments and cannot see a job to the end when they lose the items needed for the job. On the other hand, children diagnosed with ADHD hyperactive-impulsive have all of the below-mentioned symptoms except those found in other psychiatric disorders or medical conditions (Polanczyk, et al. 2014). The symptoms include fidgeting, squirming, inability to sit still during a group activity such as dinner and talking nonstop. They are also very impatient, are continually moving, find it hard to wait for their turn in tasks and cannot listen without interrupting. ADHD is the most typically studied and investigated mental disorder in young children and teenagers, however, in most diagnosed cases, the causes are not defined. Diagnosis criteria through the DSM-IV suggest that around five to seven percent of children have ADHD while about 1-2% of the diagnosis of children is done through ICD-10. Statistics show that by 2015, about 51 million people were diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. It has been recorded that more boys are diagnosed with ADHD than girls as medical practitioners overlook the symptoms in girls since they differ from those in boys (Klein, et al. 2017). Nearly 50% of individuals diagnosed with the disorder during their childhood have the symptoms even in their adult lives, and less than 5% of adults are diagnosed with the condition.