Introduction Soap consists of a positive and a negative side called polar ends. When the ends are met up with oil, non polar and hydrophobic it will not mix, so the molecules do not change state. Here is a diagram of the soap and water: Soap has micelles which point directly outwards and interact with the water when “bringing” it in. They are like packets collecting what is around it. The soap, not only kills the bacteria, but moisturises the hands with a balanced pH. Method Firstly, we would have to get the soap base which is fixed at two grams.

We would have to add an independent variable which is the amount of Shea butter. There were amounts of 0 through to 3 grams going up in halves. This would narrow down our choices to make out what the conclusion would be. We would first have to measure the soap base and add it to a beaker with the amount of S. butter. We would have to use a Bunsen burner, gloves, a flat mat, a tripod and glasses to protect from any fires. We could then have a choice to add food colouring or scents. The beaker would then be left on blue fire for a few minutes until the two substances have mixed and reacted in some way.

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We would then have to pour it into a cup case the leave it to dry. We would then try to experiment the ability to lather and the texture. This test would be continued with the remains of the numbers (amount of shea butter). Results Amount of Soap Base Amount of shea butter Ability to lather Texture 2g 0g 9cm 5 2g 0. 5g 5cm 7. 5 2g 1g 6cm 1 2g 1. 5g 3. 5cm 5 2g 2g 5cm 7. 2 2g 2. 5g 2. 5cm 4 2g 3g 7cm 0 I predicted that the more shea butter I add the smoother the soap would be. Additionally the more shea butter I add, the less lather would be produced. Graph

This graph determines that the ability to lather was very good at 0 grams of shea butter and got worse with the more shea butter added each time but it shot up to 7 when it got to three so the results are not that reliable. In the texture, the more shea butter added, it would mean the greasier the substance gets, so I can determine that the best amount of shea butter to put is zero. This gives a perfect texture. Conclusion I conclude that there should be no shea butter added to the soap because it affects the amount of greasiness and texture to be very bad. I can deduce that the best amount of shea butter to put in is zero.

Evaluation Throughout the experiments I got very over excited for making the soap and I got the written work done. I think that I could have taken more time adding the shea butter and measuring it properly and efficiently so the results become more reliable. Next time I would also have written down every action I had done so that I can determine the results much more efficiently and easily. There would be no hassle in my future work! Lip balm Investigation Introduction Lip balm is new fashion for girls mostly now, because they come in flavours and moisturize the lips.

In our lessons we had the chance to make it. Oil molecules, non polar, in lip balm are very long. They are made of long chains of carbon, like this: C-C- C-C- C-C- C-C- C-C- C-C- C-C- C-C- C-C- C-C- C-C- C-C- C-C- C-C- There could be at least 20-60 carbons- the longer the chain of carbons the stickier the oil, this occurs because the forces between the molecules are stronger. For example if there are 5 people playing tug of war, they wouldn’t be that strong, but If there are 60 people playing tug of war against each other they would be stronger because they are closer to one another!

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