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Sports is a force of good in the world, as it is considered the dominating source of entertainmentin the world. As well as a powerful tool to foster universal values and promote transformative socialchange. But corruption is interfering with that, and constantly preventing sports from fulfilling theirpotential and gaining their benefit. The opportunity for companies and sport entities to benefit frominvolvement in sporting events presents a huge opportunity for corruption in all forms to infiltrate in thesport industries. Such corruption includes: Bribery, doping, match fixing and illegal betting are just someof the negative actions that undermine the spirit of sport. As a result, it leaves sport fans around theworld dissatisfied with what is happening with the recent corruption that has been rampant in severalgames. Sports and illegal activities have been associated with each other for centuries, but what haschanged now is the ways criminals manipulate and corrupt in sports. In fact, it became more visiblenowadays mainly because of the increase of money involved, as well as a larger investment in theathletes and in sports which encouraged an increase in the illegal activities.Match-fixing and corruption hampered the good cause of sport and trickle down to the fabric ofsociety, and has spread to the socioeconomic sector. With the expansion of the sport industry, manychallenges and opportunities has resulted during the dramatic evolution of the world of sports. "Countriesare vital for legislating against sports' corruption, but international organizations also need a voice toshow how this crime can be stopped," said session moderator and staff member of the UN Office onDrugs and Crime (UNODC), Ronan O'Laoire. UNODC and the International Centre for Sport Security(ICSS) have been developing a tracking tool to better detect match fixing and corruption and share thesetools with the law enforcement.Criminals tend to focus on a wide range of sports that include: football, tennis, and cycling, asthey tend to manipulate matches in all ways possible. They do this for a reason, as they gain a hugeprofit from the manipulation taking place across the international borders. Then they use the money theygained, to commit other illegal activities. Most corruption activities are made behind closed doors, inwhich nobody knows about. This provides an opportunity for them to go unpunished or unchecked. Thus,corruption needs to be immediately approached in all ways possible including: criminal justice butkeeping in mind the interests of the sport organizations.Dhahran Ahliyya Schools Model United Nations 2018 | 9 th and 10 th of February 2018Page 2 of 9 | Research ReportDefinition of Key TermsMatch fixing:Is the activity criminals do to predict the outcome of the match, before the match is played.Illegal gambling:Is a violation of law that involves five or more persons who conduct finance, manage.Bounty:Is a payment given by a group to someone that is no associated with the group as an incentivefor accomplishing a task. Another word is a reward.Doping:Using a prohibited item like drugs on the athletes to enhance their sporting performance.Corruption:Is the act of conducting an illegal, or dishonest activity for personal benefits.Bribery:Is the action of either taking or receiving money, gift, or other incentives in order to persuade, orfor personal benefits.Bid Rigging:Is when the prices are inflated by inside agreements among competitors bidding for any project.Whistle-blowing:Is the act of exposing any kind of information that is considered illegal, or unethical.Wagering:Is a more formal term for bet.Financial crime:Is when money is made through the embezzlement of people, companies or whole economies withuse of bribery, identity theft, and tax evasion.Extortion:Is the act of forcing people into obtaining something like money from them.Dhahran Ahliyya Schools Model United Nations 2018 | 9 th and 10 th of February 2018Research Report | Page 3 of 1Bookmakers:Is a person whose jobs is to take bets.Syndicates:Is a gathering of people that share a common interest, which in this case betting.Background InformationNew Orleans Saints bounty scandalThe New Orleans Saints bounty scandal also known as “Bountygate” was an incident in whichmembers of the New Orleans Saints were accused of operating a bounty system, in which players werepaid to injure the opposing team players. It was an operation that took place from 2009 to 2011.New England Patriots videotaping controversyIn 2007, New England Patriots were accused of videotaping New York Jet’s coach signals. Theyhad to pay a fine of $ 250,000.Russian Judges in Salt LakeRussians Elena Berezhnaya and Anton Sikharulidze won the gold at the 2002 Winter Olympics inSalt Lake City, but only due to a vote trading scheme concocted by the Russian and French judges. Match- FixingIn November, 2009, German authorities and UEFA went exposing a 200 strong criminal gang whileconducting an investigation within 200 matches, 32 players are suspected of being involved in thescandal. They have been found bribering players and the support staff to fix matches in order to makemoney from the illegal betting that was taking place. Among these games that were manipulated wereEuropea League and the Champion League matches. Uefa officials believe that this is one of the biggestscandals that hit Europe, and they were deeply shocked by the scale of this problem.Bid rigging in South Africa: World Cup 2010In a corrupt game referred to as bid rigging, the prices are inflated by inside agreements amongcompetitors bidding for any project. In South Africa during the hosting of the World Cup 2010, severalhosting cities were victims of bid rigging. As the stadium’s constructing companies colluded and inflatedprices for an estimated amount of $394 millions. The cities pursued the companies involved to claim forrefund the increased value.Dhahran Ahliyya Schools Model United Nations 2018 | 9 th and 10 th of February 2018Page 4 of 9 | Research ReportMajor Countries and Organizations InvolvedThe International Partnership against Corruption in Sport (IPACS) & Organization for EconomicCo-operation and Development (OECD)The International Partnership against Corruption in Sport (IPACS) agrees to establish threetaskforces to help tackle corruption in sport at its meeting at the Economic Co-operation andDevelopment (OECD) in Paris on 14-15 December 2017. OECD Secretary General emphasized theimmediate need of fighting corruption in sports in order to maintain and preserve their integrity.Stressing the importance of maintaining sport free of corruption, the OECD coordinated essential stepsto fight corruption.The Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) & QatarGarcia Report, the name given to a report made by Michael J. Garcia and tasked by FIFA, initiallycleared Qatar of corruption allegations related to world association football. However, it was reportedlater, according to a German newspaper, that Qatari federation has flown three of the voting member for2022 hosting rights to Rio. Recently, there were major corruption allegation surfacing the country. Sincesummer 2015, FIFA, which is football’s world governing body has been recently accused of majorcorruption, related to the 2022 World Cup bid. It alleged that Qatar has agreed through their state TV togive FIFA $100 million if they won the vote.Transparency International (TI)Transparency International focuses on fighting corruption, by linking the sport community toworldwide anti corruption movements. Keeping in mind that their main initiatives and focus areas targetimproving the governance of sport organizations, and strengthening the reliability of the bidding andawarding process of major sporting events.International Criminal Police Organization (INTERPOL)INTREPOL works on tackling the issue of sport corruptions by gathering law enforcement agenciesfrom all over the world. The global INTERPOL Match-Fixing Task Force also known as “IMFTF” supportsmember countries with investigations to maintain a global network of investigators for the sharing ofinformation. INTERPOL initiatives focus on three aspects; International asset recovery, operationalsupport, and training.The Russian FederationDhahran Ahliyya Schools Model United Nations 2018 | 9 th and 10 th of February 2018Research Report | Page 5 of 1In a more dangerous act, the Russian Federation helped their players in doping thus ignoring allethical and health consequences. This was revealed by the report offered by USADA (US AntiDopingAgency) who insisted on banning Russian teams from participating in Winter Olympics. This wasfollowed by steep leniency in part of both organizations International Olympic Committee (IOC) andWADA through the lack of further investigation into the tampered urine samples.Furthermore, the agencies didn't follow up with the whistleblower and have not even interviewed thekey players in the scandal. Such dis-genuine interest in finding out the true nature of the corrupt practicesparked even more suspicion of how spread and deep is the corruption. The sequence of events relatedto corruption of sport is so overwhelming that most people are certain their corruption is taking place butthey cannot put their hands on evidences. No better example than the 2018 and 2022 world cup biddingwhich have been awarded to Russia and Qatar, respectively. The bribery trails were so evident but yetno single act was brought up in the light or brought to justice.Timeline of EventsDate Description of eventDecember 2010 Russia is awarded the 2018 World Cup and Qatar earns the hosting rights for2022 World CupSeptember 2014 Garcia completes his 430- page report into corruption allegations and sendsit to FIFADecember 2015 Multiple FIFA officials alleges use of bribery as well as fraud and moneylaundering to corrupt the issuing of media and marketing rights for FIFAgamesDecember 2017 The International Partnership against Corruption in Sport (IPACS) at theOECD was heldRelevant UN Treaties and Events? CAC/COSP 6 Resolutions, 6 November 2015? International Convention Against Doping in Sport (2005)? Preventing and combating corrupt practices and transfer of funds of illicit origin and returning suchfunds to the countries of origin, 20 December 2002 (A/RES/57/244)Dhahran Ahliyya Schools Model United Nations 2018 | 9 th and 10 th of February 2018Page 6 of 9 | Research Report? United Nations Convention Against Corruption (2005)? Promoting Good Governance and Mitigating the Risk of Corruption (2015)Previous Attempts to solve the IssueEven with the past actions that have been made to solve this issue, sport corruption still remainsa prevalent issue. The hard core of the problem may not have been tackled properly as the efforts failedto incorporate the justice system into the investigation in order to follow the trace of the money as well asthe kickbacks. As a result, they are not able to handle the illegal betting systems taking place. This hasbeen shown clearly in the contention around Qatar’s rights to host the World Cup 2022.INTERPOL has been running training programs that target both the players and support staff ontackling sport manipulation. Also, another program was run but it had taken more measures to solve theissue, that include whistleblowing protection as well as lifting bank secrecies. This program was made bythe partnership of United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) with the International Centre forSports Security (ICSS). The coverage for this program fall short of including all sport events or everycountry. This was evident in several incidents specially in Pakistan cricket which deteriorated to the pointof kidnapping and extortion. Furthermore, the relationship between the syndicates and bookmakers inone hand and the players in the other constitutes major problems in match- fixing.Another noteworthy program is the establishment of the Global Judicial Network by 2018, throughthe partnership of the UNODC and the G20. This program aims to widen the cooperation amongcountries, to combat the corruption through enhancing the justice systems and developing new programsto trace the money involved in corruption. Thus, governments lenient in handling sport corruption will bediscouraged to do so. In addition, new indicators are being created by the UNODC as well as thenational institutions.Possible SolutionAlthough rules and regulations are present in the sport industries, they are not always enforcedacross the board. As the rules are not shared among these countries, and standards differ from onecountry to another. Political and financial motives seem to be a driving force from what is right, especiallywhen countries focus on their own personal benefits rather than looking at what is good for all. This hasbeen evident in the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) doping scandal.Anti-corruption global code should be created whereby all countries abide by the rules, and avoiddifferent interpretations of criminality and ethics. The collaboration between UNODC and the IOC onstudying the domestic criminal legislations has made it easier to establish a common ground forcountries to initiate multiple investigations among themselves. This will result in massive improvementsin the level of crackdown of transnational criminal organizations. Yet, time constraints have to be takenDhahran Ahliyya Schools Model United Nations 2018 | 9 th and 10 th of February 2018Research Report | Page 7 of 1into account while tackling this issue. Another way around this obstacle, is for existing organizationsworking on eradicating sport corruption such as World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA), is to widen itsscope. Keeping in mind, such initiatives will not be sufficient to eradicate corruption without peoplebecoming aware of the danger of such practice. Therefore, an awareness campaign should be alwayspresent in the sport industry to illustrate the consequences of corruption taking place.

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