TIPS & EXPERT ADVICE ON ESSAYS, PAPERS & COLLEGE APPLICATIONS

Statistics today had become indispensable in all phases of human endeavor. Statistical methods are playing an ever-increasing role in framing suitable policies in a large number of diversified fields covering almost all sciences such as Biology, Zoology, Sociology, Anthropology, Psychology, Education, Economics, Business Planning, Industry, Medical Sciences, Natural Sciences, Engineering and Technology. It is true that these fields demand somewhat different and specialized technique in particular problems, yet the fundamental principles that underlie the various methods are identical regardless of the field of applications. The word “Statistics” conveys a variety of meaning to people. Each day we are exposed to a wide assortment of numerical information which often has a profound impact to our lives. Numbers play an essential role in statistics. Whenever numbers are collected and compiled, they become statistics. They are the raw material of statistics. These materials must be processed to be useful. The study of statistics involves methods of refining numerical information into useful valid inferences.In addition “statistics” also refers to a subject, just as ‘mathematics’ refers to a subject as well as to symbols, formulae, and theorems. It is a branch of scientific methods used in dealing with phenomena that can be described numerically either by count or by measurements. Thus the word statistics refers either to quantitative information or to a method of dealing with quantitative information. Quantitative information is called statistical data and the methods by which the statistical data are analyzed are called statistical methods. However statistics must be used very carefully to get a reasonable conclusion because incomplete data may lead to false conclusions.The word “Statistics’ comes from the Italian word “Statista” (meaning “Statesman”) or the German word “Statistik” each of which means a Political State. It was first used by Professor Gottfried Achenwall (1719-1772), a professor in Marlborough in 1749 to refer to the subject-matter as a whole. Achenwall defined statistics as “the political science of the several countries”. The word “Statistics” appeared for the first time in the famous book, “Elements of Universal Erudition” by Baran J.F. Von Bielfeld, translated by W.Hooper M.D.(3 Vols., London, 1770). One of its chapter is entitled “Statistics” and contains a definition of the subject as “the science that teaches us what is the political arrangement of all the modern states of the known world”. The science of statistics is said to have originated from two main sources.1. Government Records2. MathematicsGovernment Records: This is the earliest foundation because all cultures with a recorded history had recorded statistics, and the recording was done by agents of the government for governmental purposes. Thus an ancient Egypt, the police prepared registration list of all heads of families. In ancient Judea, a census of population was taken on several occasions, including one in 2030 B.C. when the population was estimated at 3,800,000. The first Roman census was taken in 435 B.C. Statistics were recorded in Roman times also about military strength, taxable capacity of the people, births and deaths etc. Since statistical data were collected for governmental purposes, statistics was then described as the “science of kings” or “the science or Statecraft”. Beginning with the sixteenth century, a large number of statistical handbooks are published. Many prominent people such as Captain John Graunt (1620-1674), William Petty(1623-1697) and Henry contributed a great deal to development of statistics. Mathematics: Statistics is said to be a branch of applied mathematics.

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