Task 1

i) To make
the point of a centre punch hard angle tough the tool will need to go through two
different heat treatment processes. The first heat treatment called “hardening”
uses heat at really high temperatures to increase the material hardness. The second
treatment called “tempering” is a heat treatment process used to increase
toughness and remove excess hardness given by previous hardening process. The
complete process for both treatments is divided in 4 phases:

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1st phase: The punch is
slowly and uniformly heated at first. Then all the heat is concentrated on the
tip. This will then gradually become red hot

phase: After arriving the red-hot stage the punch will be cooled by dipping
into water


                            Colour of the metal per temperature


3rd phase: A methyl
acetylene propidine flame is then used to heat the tip just below the critical point of the material for a certain period.
As the heat is concentrated in the tip slowly a blue line of heat will appear near
it. The brazing torch will then be turned off when the blue line reaches the


phase: The tempered punch will be allowed to slowly cool in the air



           temperatures and the associated
colours required when tempering

ii) The
hardening of process of a mild-steel clamp jaw is a thermochemical process in
which alloying metals like carbon or nitrogen are diffused in the surface of
the clamp jaw and result in a solid solution much harder than the original that
improves its wear resistance without dropping its toughness. The process is
dived in four stages:

stage: the clamp jaw is heated until becomes red hot.     

2nd stage: Using
blacksmiths the steel is removed from the brazing hearth and plunged into a
case hardening compound rich in carbon allowing it to cool.

stage: stage 1 is repeated but when removed the clamp jaw is plunged into cold

stage: Mow the clamp jaw has a hardened outer surface but a flexible and soft

iii) Other
heat treatment techniques include                             2nd stage                 differential hardening, flame hardening and induction

In differential hardening different
areas of a single object receive different heat treatment s. This technique is
commonly used in the production of knives and swords.  The process uses layers, usually made of
clay, to cover the area of the material that need to remain soft, instead those
parts the need hardening is left exposed, allowing during quenching, the
hardening of only those parts of the material.

Flame hardening can concur and differ
from differential hardening. Similarly, in flame hardening only a portion of a
metal is hardened. However, unlike differential hardening, whir the entire body
is heated and then made cold at different rates, only a part is heated before
the quenching. This is a lot easier to carry out than differential hardening,
however, it usually produces brittle zone between the unheated and heated

Induction hardening differ almost
completely from the treatments above. Its used the production crankshaft
journals and the techniques consist in heating if the surface very quickly
using a non-contact method through induction heating. Thanks to this method the
crank shaft will acquire hard and wear resistance surface while maintaining
proper toughness.
































Task 2

Powder coating

coating of metal wheels is type of coating that is apply as a free-flowing, drying
powder by spraying it in the surface of the wheel. This application is used to
achieve a hard finish tougher that conventional painting. The full process of
powder coating includes three stages, the part preparation of equipment, the powder
application processes and the curing:

Pre-treatment of equipment are used to remove oil, lubrication greases, dirt, metal oxide etc. from the wheel. This
achieved through different types of pre-treatments methods but in the
automotive industry chemicals pre-treatments are the more popular. Chemical pre-treatment
implies the wheel to be submerged in a phosphates solution through different
stages that include degreasing, desmutting, etching, and several rinses. This
will lead to the phosphating of the wheel. This pre-treatment process both
improves bonding of the powder to the wheel and cleans it from all impurities.
Another pre-treatment process includes normalizing which is often used even before
the chemical pre-treatment. Normalizing is a type of heat treatment used to
relieve from stress the post-machined wheel; this will also improve its
ductility and toughness. The operation will warm the car wheel just above its
upper critical point (usually 50ºC above). The car wheel is held enough time
time to ley small metal grains to firm and high energy grain to combine
themselves. After this operation the car wheel is air-cooled to normalise its thermal
reading to room temperature. Normalizing temperature vary between 810ºC to 930

Powder application processes implies the spaying of the powder onto the wheel using
electrostatic or corona gun. The gun imparts a positive electric charge to the powder, which is then sprayed towards the wheel through
compressed air spraying. The wheel is then heated, until the powder melts and
produces a uniform film. It is then cooled to form a hard coating.  

Curing; When a thermoset powder reaches high
temperatures, it begins flow out and melt, it will them chemically react to
form a higher molecular weight
polymer in a network-like structure (a much stronger structure. To achieve this
the post-coated wheel will be exposed to temperature between 200 ºC for about 10-15 minutes to reach
full cure and establish the full film properties.

Anodizing aluminium
cook pans

Aluminium cookware is usually anodized to increase its corrosion
resistance, adhesion allow dyeing and improve its lubrication. When exposed to
air at room temperature aluminium reacts by forming a layer of amorphous aluminium
oxide 2 to 3 nm thick that provide effective protection toward corrosion. The
anodizing process consist of multiple step process:

Cleaning –  This part removes all the fabrication oils
found in the aluminium pan by soaking it into a H2O-based solution that
contains mild acids, dispersants and detergents

Pre-treatment is used as decorative process to
improve the surface of the pan prior to anodizing. Common pre-treatments
methods include bright dip, which impart a bright, shiny finish and etch, which imparts a satin, matte

which is the main operation that produces the actual coating. The procedure is
the following, a direct current of 15 to 21 V is passed through the pan acting
as a positive electrode while the pan is completely submerged in a bath of
water and sulfuric acid that acts  as the electrolyte. The water will then break down liberating oxygen from
the surface of the pan this will the combine with the aluminium of the pan and
create the coating. The coating is a microscopic transparent layer of aluminium
oxide (thickness 0.5 micrometres)


Integral colouring – imparts to the pan a colour of choice (usually brass, bronze and black) as it is
being formed in the anodizing bath properly modified for that purpose. Except
imparting colour to the pan, this process will allow also provide a better
resistant coating than normal anodizing

Sealing – in this process the pores on the
surface of the pan will be closed as unsealed pores could lead to poor
corrosion resistance or the assimilation of unwanted stains

Making of a
Pan Calphalon – www.youtube.com/watch?v=0qaWqu-V9SI








screenshots from video www.youtube.com/watch?v=0qaWqu-V9SI






















Task 3

Shaped car panel blanking and forming

The material used in car panel is carbon steel a very strong
alloy using a blank machine the shaped needed is cut off into a flat shaped the
a stamping press which is a forming machine will that forces the sheet of metal
in the desired shape, that was designed for both aerodynamic and strength.
Surface protecting treatment include:                                                             

proofing, in which the car body is protected using s a special chemical
formulation typically phosphate conversion coating. This can prevent or delay the
rusting of the carbon steel

painting, although it is used primarily to give the panel a good visual also
give an extra layer of protection for the carbon steel. After application the wheel
is then heated, until the painting melts and produces a uniform film. It is
then cooled to form a hard coating

Medal blanking

Medals manufacturing
are divided into 10 stages

stage in this stage the medals are design and customized for the purpose needed,
it is usually done on sketch or digital platforms

stage in this process will provide three-dimensional depth and texture to
plaster cast sculpt used in the building of the coining die.

phase in this part of the process two hardened steel will both engrave and
strike the metal material onto the chosen design on top of the medal

Custom medal melt phase, in this phase the metals used for creation
of the medallion are melted down, poured into billets and then pressed into
long and soft annealed metal strips

Extruding phase, the metal strips heated in billet ovens at 1000 degrees. After this
procedure they are then extruded, this makes the billets turn into thin strips and
ready for the rolling phase

Rolling phase the thin strips are allowed cooling down
and each one is trimmed before arriving the trolling phase. This is the phase the
specific thickness of the metal is calibrated, this happens by letting the strip
into a rolling machine that uses hydraulic power to flatten it into the precise
thickness needed

Blanking phase each properly flattened strip is sent
to a blank press that punches out metal discs. Each one of them is then prepped
and claned before arriving the strike phase

Polish phase Using a solution of soap and water
each blank is polished using ball bearings

Minting Phase This part of the process uses a minting press that strikes every
blank with the custom-made dies. When the dies strike each blank it leaves a
detailed impression on either side the sum of all the strike will give life to the
imagery designed.

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