beans of cocoa tree which is known as Theobromo
cacao L. originated cocoa is the main ingredient in chocolate manufacture.
Cocoa has its value and quality which are related to unique and complex
flavours. There are few varieties of cocoas around the world mainly Forastero
type of bulk cocoas have the strong basic cocoa flavours while aromatic,
floral, smoother flavor characteristics exhibited by the fine varieties like
Criollo and Nacional. Its about 600 various compounds may found in cocoas such
as alcohols, carboxylic acids, aldehydes, ketones, esters and pyrazines acts as
odor-active components. (Aprotosoaie, Luca and Miron, 2014)

mixture of cocoa nibs, mass, press cake, powder, or liquor with or without addition
of sugar, cocoa butter, aroma or flavouring substances, and optional ingredients
(e.g. nuts) produce chocolate. Chocolate is defined as a dispersion of
micro-refines particles in a continuous phase of fat where the particles are
mainly consist of cocoa particles from ground cocoa beans and sugar and milk
powder in milk chocolate. Chocolate may include with covered nuts and fruits
(e.g. raisins), but does not include yoghurt-, cereal-, and honey-covered nuts.
For instance may include bonbons, cocoa butter confectionery like composed of
cocoa butter, milk solids and sugar, white chocolate, chocolate chips (e.g. for
baking), milk chocolate, cream chocolate, sweet chocolate, bitter chocolate,
filled chocolate which a chocolate with a texturally distinct center and
external coating, excluding flour confectionery and pastry products and composite
chocolate which is chocolate with added edible substances excluding flour,
starch and fat. (Fao.org, 2001)

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additives is one of the food preservative which can be used alone or in
conjunction with other methods of food preservation. Food additives added to
food in order to preserve flavour, improve its taste and appearance. There are
two types of food additives which are natural and artificial origin. Some additives
are manufactured from natural sources such as soybeans and corn which provide
lecithin to maintain product consistency, beets which provide beet powder used
as food colouring. Meanwhile, other additives are man-made like artificial
additives can be produced more economically with greater purity and more
consistent quality than some of their natural counterparts. A substance added
to a food for a specific purpose in that food is referred to as a direct
additive. There are many direct additives are identified on the ingredient
label of foods. Indirect food additives are those that become part of the food
in trace amounts due to its packaging, storage or other handling. (Allfoodbusiness.com,

all the preservatives found on the food products label.

Lecithin (E322), Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate (E476) and Vanillin.


b.      Explain and describe each
function of the preservatives.

acts as an emulsifier which lowers the surface tension of water allowing the
better combining of oils, fats and water in such foods as chocolate, ice cream,
margarine and mayonnaise. Morever, lecithin increases the volume and also acts
as an anti-staling agent thus extending shelf life in bread and bakery products.
For instance, lecithin allows a reduction in the cocoa butter content, it also prevents
crystals forming and reduces viscosity (E476) in chocolate. Furthermore, lecithin
is also a good synergist to antioxidants in fats and oils so is often used in
combination with them. Soya lecithin has the same binding ability as egg yolk
lecithin and can be used in place of eggs in many products. In addition, it
also helps powders mix quickly and easily in milk or water (Dr. Group’s Healthy
Living Articles, 2014) Vanillin is a vanilla
extract alternative made from wood pulp and its flavored used in over-the-counter
medicines, beverages, and chocolate. (Dr. Group’s Healthy Living Articles,
2014) The function of Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate is leads to a stable
viscous emulsion which is very important before and under the process of
crystallization in order to obtain the right fat crystal network in chocolate.  (Christiansen
and Norn, 2014)

the advantages and disadvantages of the preservatives use in the food products.

As an advantage of soy lecithin is
marketed as a nutritional supplement mainly because it is rich in choline which
is a micronutrient that is good for heart health and development of brain. In
contrast, soy lecithin could cause adverse side effects as allergies, hormonal
interference, low blood pressure, malabsorption and gastrointestinal
complications if consume too much of it. (Dr. Michael Kessler, 2015) The
significant advantage of vanillin is very beneficial for health if its in pure
form because it contain antioxidant compounds based on a study. Besides,
vanillin may also be helpful for fighting bacteria so that it can inhibit
microbial growth in food products. Nevertheless, vanillin contains a much lower
amount of protective activity. The addition of Polyglycerol
Polyricinoleate in chocolate leads to adequate flow properties which improves
the flow characteristics of molten chocolate by reduction of Casson yield value
is also represents as the viscosity at low shear rate. Furthermore, the reduction of yield value also improves the release
of entrapped air in chocolate which leads to a smoother and more efficient
molding and depositing. Therefore, cost savings and without compromising
quality and taste can be achieved. In addition, the property of
Polyglycerol Polyricionate in chocolate is its
ability to limit fat bloom. Other than that, Polyglycerol Polyricionate is also
claimed to increase chocolate’s tolerance to the thickening effect caused by
small quantities of water and sometimes introduced during enrobing operations. Lecithin
and Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate often used in combination for an optimal
control of chocolate rheology since both have complementary rheological
properties. Thus, a more even coating of confectionary pieces can be substained
while reduce the consumption of expensive cocoa butter in chocolate. However,
Polyglycerol Polyricinoleate has disadvantage of require very long reaction
time and involve high energy costs. (Bastida-Rodríguez, 2013).

one of the main issues (eg: nutritional values, sensory quality and food
safety) that related to the preservatives that use in the food products.

theory, lecithin manufacture eliminates all soy proteins and making it
hypoallergenic but minute amounts of soy protein always remain in lecithin as
well as in soy oil in reality. There are three components of soy protein have been
identified in soy lecithin, include Kunitz trypsin inhibitor which has a track
record of triggering severe allergic reactions even though in the most minuscule
quantities. Thus, the presence of lecithin in many food products poses a
special danger for people with soy allergies. (REALfarmacy.com, 2017)

 Conclusion :       

a nutshell, the chemical preservatives in cocoa or cocoa products are few since
the natural preservatives in the products have ability of extend the shelf life
of it. In a way of suggestion and recommendations, the acacia is known as gum
Arabic used as thickener, emulsifier or stabilizer at 20% vanilla powdered


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