The size and shape of
nanodiamond particles impart themselves to a number of applications. Primary
particles of detonation nanodiamond are of size 4–5 nm and typically are spherical in shape . Thus well-defined shape and size
makes them ideal for applications where a high specific surface area (?300 to 400 m2/g) is required, for example in
the uploading of drugs and bioligands, or the formation of a dense network
of bonds between nanodiamond nanofillers and a surrounding polymer matrix11. Rounded particles are inherently more effective in lubrication
and polishing applications. On coupled with the high mechanical strength of the
diamond core which can withstand high localized stress, the rounded shape
ensures minimal contact area with sliding surfaces, and nanodiamonds can act as
nanoscale ball bearings. In biological applications, well-controlled sizes and shapes of particles can likely improve
the loading capacity for drug delivery. Primary particles of detonated
nanodiamonds  can also have different
advantage over other comparably sized materials in applications where true
sub-10 particles with low cytotoxicity are needed.

         Primary particles of Detonated nanodiamonds (DND)
are inherently non-toxic, though this can be dependent on sufficient
purification from sp2 carbon, and the toxicity varies depending
on the type of cell use. The well-controlled size and shape of detonated
nanodiamonds does not hold for HPHT nanodiamond, which have irregular shapes
resulting from the crushing process; however, rounded sub-10 nm
particles of HPHT diamond have been obtained by processing of 150 ?m particles via a jet-milling
and subsequent ball milling process, as well as through careful air oxidation
and centrifugal isolation95,96. In general, most sub-10 nm particles exhibit a rounded
shape, but the sharp facets of HPHT diamond is more pronounced in
>10–20 nm particles. The sharp faces of HPHT have potential for gene
therapy, where cell penetration is fast and accompanied by low cytotoxicity. It
would be ideal to produce uniformly shaped HPHT nanodiamond without the sharp
facets, since the nitrogen content (?100 to 200 ppm) is substantially lower than that of DND (?10,000 ppm), and it is, therefore, best suited for fluorescent
imaging applications13.

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