HoughtonlakeBoard.org

TIPS & EXPERT ADVICE ON ESSAYS, PAPERS & COLLEGE APPLICATIONS

The study will be carried out in Kaduna State
of Nigeria. Kaduna State is located between latitude 090 and 110
N and longitude 060 and 090 E. The state has an estimated
population of 6,766,562 people. The mean annual temperature varies between 240C
and 280C. The vegetation consists of Northern Guinea savannah in the
north and Southern Guinea savannah in the south. The length of rainfall varies
from 150 days in the north and 190 days in the southern part. The annual
rainfall varies from 1107mm in the north to 1286mm in the south. Relative
humidity is low ranging between 60 and 80% in July. The soil pH (level of
acidity/alkalinity) ranges from 5.5 and 6.5 characterize the soil which may be
generally described as sandy-loam soil. The major economic activity of the
inhabitants is farming and trading. The state occupies a major position in the
agricultural economy of northern Nigeria.

Geo-politically, Kaduna is divided into three
zones; the Northern zone comprises of the following Local Government Councils,
Zaria, Sabon Gari, Makarfi, Kudan, Ikara, Soba, Kubau and Lere. The Central
zone is made up of the following, Kajuru, Chukun, Kaduna South, Kaduna North,
Birnin Gwari, Igabi and Giwa. While the Southern zone, is made up of Kachia,
Kagarko, Jaba, Jama’a, Sanga, Kaura, Zango-Kataf and Kauru.

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!


order now

The State is made up of 23 Local Government
Areas (LGAs). Kaduna State Agricultural Development Project (KADP), the state’s
agricultural extension outfit, is divided into four agricultural zones: Lere,
Maigana, Samaru and Birnin-Gwari.

3.2
Sample Size and Sampling Technique

A multi-stage sampling procedure which involved
a combination of purposive and random sampling techniques will be adopted for
this study as follows; First stage: Random
selection two agricultural zones out of the four ADP zones in Kaduna State. Second
stage: random selection of one LGA out of the two zones. Third stage: random
selection of 4 wards (two wards each) out of the two LGAs selected. Finally, A
total of 75 farmers were randomly selected proportionate to the number of
farmers from each of the five wards using Ta Yamane’s formula as adopted by
Kalpana (2011).

The formula is expressed as;

 n =  

Where;

 n = number of
farmers;

N = population of the study;

e = (10%)error.

Table 3.1 Target Population and Sample Size

S/N

Wards
selected

No. farmers
(sampling frame)

No. of
farmers selected

1
2
3
4
5

Jada 1
Leko
Mapeo
Nyibango
Mayo-kalaye

43
54
58
75
65

11
14
15
19
16

Total

 

295

75

 

3.3 Method of
Data Collection

The data was obtained by primary source using
questionnaires administered to the farmers and through personal interview with
the respondents.

3.4 Method of
Data Analysis

The analytical tools that were used for this research
were descriptive statistics (include percentages, means and Gross margin) and
inferential statistics (Multiple Regression analysis).

3.4.1
Percentages and Averages

These were used to analyse the socio-economic
characteristics of the respondent as well as problems associated with cowpea
production to achieve specific objective (i) and (iv).

       
i.           
Arithmetic Mean =

Where:

 ? = summation
sign.

Xi = individual observation

N = Total Number of Observation

  
ii.     
Percentages =

3.4.2 Gross
Margin Analysis

This was used to estimate cost and return in cowpea
production to achieve specific objective (ii).It is express as follows;

GM=TR-TVC

TR = QyPy

TVC = P1X1 +
P2X2 + P3X3 + P4X4 +
P5X5 + Tc + other cost

Where:-

GM = Gross Margin (?/ha);

TR = Total Revenue from the
Crop (?);

Qy = Output of crop
(kg);

Py = Unit price of
the output (?/kg);

TVC = Total Variable Cost
associated with the input per ha (?);

X1= Quantity of seed
(kg);

X2 = Labour used
(Man- days);

X3 = Agro-chemical
(litres);

X4 = Fertilizer
(kg);

X5 = Empty Sacs
(number);

P1 =Unit cost of
seed (?/kg);

P2= Cost of labour
(?/man-day);

P3 = Unit cost of
agro-chemical (?/litre);

P4 = Unit cost
fertilizer (?/kg);

P5 = Unit cost of
Empty Sacs (?);

Tc = Transport Cost
(?);

While the Net farm income (NFI)

NFI = GM – FC

FC = Fixed Cost (?)

Also the depreciation of the fixed inputs is given
bellow:

Depreciation (D) =

Where:

                        P
= cost of asset (?)

                        L
= Salvage value (?)

                        N
= Life span (years)

3.4.3
Multiple Regression Analysis

Multiple regression analysis was used to determine the
influence of some variable inputs on cowpea yield, and the coefficients
obtained from the analysis was used to estimate the resource use efficiency in
cowpea production to achieve objective (iii). Four functional forms were
tested. These are;

·        
Linear function

Y = b0 + b1x1 + b2x2
+ b3x3 + ….. + b6x6 + e

·        
Semi-logarithm
function

Y = logb0 + b1logx1 +
b2logx2 + b3logx3 + …. + b6logx6
+ e

·        
Exponential
function

Log Y = b0 + b1x1 + b2x2
+ b3x3 + …….. + b6x6 + e

·        
Double logarithm
function

Log Y = logb0 + b1logx1 +
b2logx2 + b3 logx3 +…..+ b6logx6
+ e

Where:

Y= Cowpea output (kg);

X1= Quantity of seed (kg);

X2 = Farm size (ha);

X3 =Family labour used (Man- days);

X4 = Hired labour used (Man- days);

X5 = Agro-Chemical (litres); 

X6 = Age (year);

X7 = Education level (years spend in formal
education);

X8 = Farming experience (years).

 e = Error term

b0 = Intercept

b1 – b5 = parameters

3.4.4
Determining Economic Efficiency of Resource Use

The following ratio was used to estimate the relative
efficiency of resource use;

r =

MVP = MPP.Py

MPP =  =b. y

MFC = PX1

Where:

            r =
Efficiency ratio;

MFC= Unit price of particular resource;

MVP= Marginal value product;

MPP = Marginal Physical Product of an input;

b = Regression co-efficient of an input;

y = Mean Value of an output;

MFC = Marginal Factor Cost or Px1

Decision
Rule:

If;

r = 1 resource is efficiently utilized

r > 1 resource is under – utilized

r < 1 resource is over-utilized.

Post Author: admin

x

Hi!
I'm Irvin!

Would you like to get a custom essay? How about receiving a customized one?

Check it out