The organization justice theory explains the recognition
and beliefs of organizational citizenship behaviors, organizational commitment,
job satisfaction, and job performance (Charash & Spector, 2001). The three
components of the organizational justice theory are procedural, distributive,
and interactional (Cropanzano, Bowen, & Gilliland, 2007). Each component
has a different effect on employees and the perception of justice within an
organization. The components of the justice theory help determine dedication to
the organization, gratification with the job, and performance of the job (Charash
& Spector, 2001). Procedural justice is the formal allocation of processes.
Distributive justice explains the distribution of work among employees and the
appropriateness of the outcomes. Interactional justice explains how employees are
treated by the organizational leaders. The problem with procedural justice is
an employee’s views of the fairness an organization has with procedures. When a
downsizing occurs, employees feels a change in the methods and procedures related
to completes a job task (Beylerian and Kleiner, 2003). If employees begin to think
they are suffering from unfair decision-making they may develop negative attitude.
Organizational leaders must maintain communication with the employees to avoid
voluntary turnover during a downsizing, by making sure their work load is balanced
(Hopkins and Weathington, 2006).
The concern with distributive justice is the fairness in the
workload. As the downsizing occurs in an organization, many employees begin to
leave. It increases workload on remaining employees as they have to take additional
responsibilities and also has to maintain current duties. If one employees receive
more work than another employees they begin to form negative perceptions of distributive.
Organizational leaders should make sure to keep the work allocation is equal among
employees as it would help to maintain a positive attitude with the remaining
Interaction justice helps describe how the immediate
supervisor of an employee influences organizational justice perceptions more
than any other leadership level. Interactional justice is has two features informational
justice and interpersonal justice. Interpersonal justice refers to the dignity,
respect, and sensitivity employees receive from the immediate supervisor.
Informational justice refers to the knowledge and explanations employees
receive from the supervisor/leaders about the changes and procedures (Wu,
Neubert, and Xiang, 2007).

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