The Natives and the European settlers encountered numerous problems over the course of two hundred years. The Europeans came to the New World as if they had been living there for years. They settled right upon land that the Natives had created villages on and farmed on as if they were entitled to that land. The European settlers treated the Natives inhumanely and, many times, try to decimate the Native populations through the use of guns and swords. Over the years, chiefs began to speak out more and more about the troubles the Europeans brought them. Chief Powhatan was the leader of the Algonquin tribes that stretched from the territory of now, Virginia and Maryland. Powhatan seemed to be calm and collected as he delivered this speech in 1609 at Werowcomico. He seems to be stating that he is upset that the Europeans always approach the Natives in violence. He says, “Why will you take by force…? Why will you destroy…? What can you get by war?”. This proves that he does not understand why the Europeans rely on violence to get the things they want. Powhatan goes on to explain that he and the other Natives would gladly aide them and trade with them if they were amicable. He clearly states, “…willing to give you what you ask, if you come in a friendly manner…”. Chief Powhatan basically says that if the Europeans do not stop being violent, we (the Natives) will retaliate in the same manner. Chief Powhatan seemed to be a skilled negotiator because he was the one that always kept the peace between the Natives and the Europeans. It is noted that after his death more problems arose. It was stated after Chief Powhatan died that “the Indians began a fourteen-year war to exterminate the whites,”. He also proved to be a skilled negotiator by keeping the peace because of his daughter. His daughter married a European settler, which proves that Powhatan wanted to establish good ties with the Europeans, in many different ways.Chief Canassatego was the leader of an Iroquois tribe. He gave his speech in 1742 in regards to negotiation problems over land and goods. The Iroquois and the Europeans have a treaty that establishes the trading of goods from the Europeans for land from the Natives. Chief Canassatego is explaining that while they are receiving the goods, they are not receiving enough to please the whole tribe. He calls out the Europeans for ripping them off. He says, “We know our lands are now become more valuable…but we are sensible that the land is everlasting, and the few goods we receive for it are soon worn out and gone,” He goes on to threaten the Europeans by saying that he will not sell them any more land until they know the quantity of goods they will receive. Canassatego also says that there are settlers living on their unsold lands, such as Juanita and Mahaniay. Another problem that Chief Canassatego expresses is that the settlers are spoiling their hunting. While they are settling on lands that are not even theirs, they are also bringing their animals which are eating the grass that the deer would feed on. Since this is happening there are no deer to be hunted, and therefore the Natives can not use anything to trade with the Europeans. Thus, the Natives are poor. He touches, again, on the concern for settlers on their unsold lands. He asks of the European proprietors that they ask why they are there. Chief Canassatego makes it clear that if those settlers on unsold land do not leave or do not ask for consideration that the Natives will turn to violence by saying, “…if No, we are able to do ourselves justice; and we will do it, by going to take payment ourselves,”. Chief Canassatego is still trying to follow the steps of Powhatan and be amicable; however, he is fed up with the way the Europeans are being disrespectful. Canassatego proves to be a skilled negotiator because he states all the things that the Europeans are doing against the treaty they had previously had made, in hopes that the Europeans will provide them with what little they are asking. Specifically, the Natives are asking for more goods to share with the whole tribe and to respect what land is still theirs. He also proves he is a skilled negotiator by relying on the idea that they are poor, also, in hopes that the Europeans will be generous in their good givings. Chief Logan was also a part of the Iroquois tribe that inhabited the Ohio River Valley. He delivered a speech in 1774 addressing the issue of war and peace. Chief Logan establishes that he was always a friend to the Europeans. He flat out says, “Such was my love for the whites that my countrymen pointed as they passed, and said, “Logan is the friend of the white man,”,”. He stated that while war was ongoing between the Natives and the Europeans that he always stayed in his cabin, “an advocate for peace”. He is upset with the Europeans because one of their people killed his whole family, wife and children included, for no reason whatsoever. Due to that act of violence, he sought revenge. He killed many, and did not regret any of it. Chief Logan never felt fear. After killing all these European people, he hoped he could find peace again. Chief Logan is a skilled negotiator. He established that there was one hundred percent peace among him and the Europeans until there was an act of unprovoked violence. He justifies his reasoning for seeking revenge and claims responsibility for killing Europeans. He seeks, not sorrow, but forgiveness from the Europeans. He knows what he did was wrong and felt no relief from his violent actions.Chief Pachgantschilias was the leader of the Delaware Indians. In 1787, he addressed his tribe, and the one European that was also in his presence. Pachganschilias suggests that while there are good European people, there are more bad people. He states that they enslave people that are not of their own color. He also says, “They would make slaves of us if they could; but as they cannot do it, they kill us,”. He is revealing to the Natives some of the terrible things that the Europeans are accountable for. Chief Pachgantschilias also calls out the settlers for being fake, and pretending that they are friends when they are not. He says of fake Europeans, “They will take him by the hand, and, at the same moment, destroy him,”. It should be noted that although he is warning his people of the bad things that the Europeans do, he still refers to them as “friends”. Chief Pachgantschilias proves to be a skilled negotiator. He does this by warning his people of the Europeans and the suffering they bring the Natives. This shows that they will not back down to the troubles that the Europeans bring, and it will only make the Natives more prepared and ready to ward off the evils of the Europeans.Chief Tecumseh was a leader of the Shawnee Indians. His speech was delivered in 1810 about the Indians sale of land to the whites. He was outraged by the situation, claiming that only a few out of the whole tribe make the decision. He feels that land, in general, should not have the option of being sold. Chief Tecumseh calls himself a warrior of God and claims that God made the land for everyone to share, not for people to own and sell. He sees selling land the same as selling air. He is upset with the fact that the Natives keep selling the land because with every piece of land they sell to the Americans, the less amount of land they have left to live on themselves. He is outraged with other Native chiefs and states, “In the future we are prepared to punish those who propose to sell land to the Americans,”. Chief Tecumseh proves to be a skilled negotiator because he threatens war amongst other Native tribes, and warns Americans, “at last I do not know what will be the consequences among the white people,”. He also proves to be a skilled negotiator by referring to the land and air and seas as God’s. This expresses his concern of the whites not being religious, and calling their bluff. All of these speeches given by chiefs demonstrate the troubles that the Europeans have brought with them to the New World. Over time, the Indians became more and more annoyed with the Europeans. In the first speech given by Chief Powhatan he is relaxed and wants to be peaceful. As the speeches progress, the Indians are becoming fed up with the way the Europeans are treating them. As seen in Chief Canassatego’s speech he warned the Europeans that, if needed, they would turn to war. The violent nature of the Indians continues throughout Chief Logan’s speech. Chief Logan, after admitting he killed many Europeans, was asking for the peace to be found again, like it was in Chief Powhatan’s days. It is obvious throughout the speeches that the chiefs start negotiating less and less with the Europeans. Chief Powhatan makes it clear that if they are friendly to the Natives then the Natives would have no problems with the Europeans. However, Chief Tecumseh threatens the Europeans, instead of negotiating with them. He says, “If you continue to purchase them, it will make war among the different tribes, and, at last I do not know what will be the consequences among the white people,”. He is demonstrating his outrage by threatening violence, instead of trying to keep the peace. The tone of the speeches changes from peaceful in Chief Powhatan’s speech to downright outraged in Chief Tecumseh’s speech. The Indians grew tired of the way the Europeans walked all over them and took advantage of them.These speeches demonstrate troubles that the Europeans brought to the New World that was talked about in the Facing East chapter. Facing East focused on the Indian’s perspectives of the Europeans, which is rarely taught in history classes. Chief Powhatan touched on the trade aspect of the chapter, especially the trading of copper and hatchets. Chief Canassatego discussed the problem of the Europeans buying their land for cheap, when they know the actual value of the land. The Facing East chapter explained that the Natives and Europeans had many different views on the concept of land ownership. That is probably why there were so many problems with land debated between the Natives and the Europeans. Chief Canassatego also talked about how the Europeans were spoiling their hunting, which was also discussed in the Facing East chapter. The Europeans brought over horses, cows, and pigs. The horses and cows would graze on the Native’s lands and it would result in the Native’s having nowhere to hunt. This is because the deer were not grazing on land that did not have any grass, which was the Native’s land. Chief Logan’s speech touched on the aspect of Indians getting revenge for death of their family members. This concept became known as the Mourning War, which was explained in the Facing East chapter. Chief Pachgantschilias called the Europeans out in his speech for being liars and fake “friends”. This just demonstrates that the Europeans were bad people which is what all the Indians thought in the Facing East chapter. Chief Tecumseh also touched on the idea of land ownership, and made it clear that God owns the land. The Native chiefs who gave these speeches all touched on different aspects of the ways that the Europeans were decimating the Native population, whether directly or indirectly. The Europeans portray the Natives as such bad people in history; however, the Europeans were really the ones causing all the mayhem.

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