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The testa or seed coat of seeds of various species are hard and impervious to water and gases, two factors vital for germination. Thus, germination is often delayed or prevented altogether in species with hard seed coats, and these seeds are said to be dormant. Scarification is a term used to describe any process which involves weakening, opening or otherwise altering a seed coat to break seed dormancy and encourage germination. Different methods of scarification include heat, freeze-thaw, acid and mechanical scarification. In thermal (or heat) scarification, ovens or hot water baths are used to increase the temperature of the seed and break its seed coat while acid scarification is a chemical method of melting the seed coat and softening the seed. In this experiment, the effects of hot water bath scarification and sulphuric acid treatment on the germination of Vigna radiata or mung bean will be observed. Vigna radiata was chosen for a multitude of reasons, prime factors being its popularity in the Indian subcontinent and its numerous uses. Further, numerous studies have shown that scarification methods are quite effective on legumes, including those of genus Vigna .Studies (Wang et. Al, 2007 & 2011) also indicated soaking the seeds in a hot water bath at temperature 80°C for between 3 and 15 minutes as well as soaking in concentrated sulphuric acid for a similar amount of time for 3-minute intervals affected the germination of other species of genus Vigna. Hence this experiment will employ a similar range to compare the effects of thermal and chemical scarification on the germination of Vigna radiata. It will also help determine the optimum time for scarification to take place prior to planting of the seed. Germination rate is the “germination percentage obtained after a certain time under stipulated conditions”. It can provide quantitative information about the effect of scarification of germination of Vigna radiata when compared to a control group, in which the germination of seeds which have not undergone scarification is observed. Mung beans require fertile, well-drained sandy loam soil with a pH between 6.2 and 7.2 for optimal germination, and germinate best when planted one to two inches deep within the soil. Sprouts appear within four to five days and thus germination rate will be measured after five days to ensure maximum germination for both treated and untreated seeds. 

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