The Lincoln memorial is located in Washington DC., where it honors Abraham Lincoln our 16th  president. Who defeated the confederacy, saving the union preserving both its government and boundaries. He also restored our nation’s founding principle that all men are created equal. Lincoln served one full term and a month and 10 days of his second, when he was assassinated at ford’s theater. No national monument had been built for any president but George Washington, but even as lincoln laid in his deathbed talk had started on the construction of a memorial for him. People saw this to be appropriate since Lincoln was the preserver of the union and Washington had been the founder of the union and should be honoured in the national mall. But it was not until 1910 that two members of congress joined together to create a monument to honor Abraham Lincoln.Shelby M. Cullom and Joseph G. Cannon, who had known Lincoln had worked to push through the Lincoln memorial bill. This bill was then signed by President Taft on February 11, 1911.This bill set aside 2 million dollars in funds and set up and Lincoln memorial commision to oversee the project even though in the end the cost was 3 million dollars. Construction was started for the Lincoln memorial on February 12, 1914. The leading architects for the project were Henry Bacon and Daniel Chester French. Henry Bacon was responsible for designing the memorial and had spent several years studying in Europe where he had grown very fond of the architecture found in Greece. His true influence in the construction was Athena’s temple known as the Parthenon . His design features 36 columns, symbolizing the states in the Union at Lincoln’s death. The building measures 204 feet long, 134 feet wide, and 99 feet tall, with 44-foot columns. He also insisted on using a variety of stones from around the country. The marble in the upper 58 steps leading from the chamber to the plaza area and facade came from Colorado, while the blocks for the lower steps leading from the chamber to the reflecting pools consisted of granite blocks from Massachusetts and  the pink marble floor of the chamber came from Tennessee. Then the limestone on the interior walls and columns of the chamber came from Indiana and the marble used in the ceiling tiles came from Alabama. Finally he had the statue of Abraham Lincoln carved form Georgia marble. There was also a basement created were steal steel-reinforced concrete columns are decorated with construction workers 90-year-old graffiti. This  statue carved from marble was done by Daniel Chester French, the leading American sculptor of his day. He spent several years researching Abraham Lincoln and studying photographs of him, finally deciding that the special qualities found in the sixteenth president were his strength combined with his compassionate nature.He showed these characteristics  by depicting the president as a worn but strong individual who had endured many hardships. He positioned Lincoln’s hands in a manner that displayed these two qualities.The president’s left hands is clenched, representing his strength and determination to see the war through to a successful conclusion. The right hand is a more open, slightly more relaxed hand representing his compassionate and warm nature. Originally the statue was to be a 12 foot tall bronze statue, but proved out of scale for a huge building, so he carved a statue 19 feet tall out of 28 blocks of  white Georgia marble. After French was done carving out each block of the statue it had to be shipped in pieces to the Lincoln memorial where it was assembled. If Lincoln’s statue was ever to stand straight up though it would stand a towering 28 feet tall. French later had lighting added to help enhance the figure. To complete the building They had to hire on others including artist Jules Guerin, architectural sculptor Ernest C. Bairstow, artist and sculptor Evelyn Beatrice Longman, New York’s premier marble cutting workshop the Piccirilli Brothers and the columnist Royal Cortissoz. Jules Guerin was selected to decorate the Lincoln Memorial interior with two canvas murals, each 60 feet long by 12 feet high, and weighing 600 pounds. These murals were to be place on both sides with one being above Lincoln’s second inaugural address and the other being above The gettysburg address. Together the murals were to symbolize the resounding principles of Abraham Lincoln, while emphasize the two great accomplishments, emancipation and unity. “Emancipation”, was represented by the mural on the south wall above the Gettysburg address with it representing freedom and liberty. “Unity,” on the north wall above Lincoln’s second inaugural address showed the Angel of Truth joining the hands of two figures representing the North and South.The next two people were architectural sculptor Ernest C. Bairstow and artist, sculptor Evelyn Beatrice Longman. Ernest C. Bairstow worked on carving the exterior details of the memorial like the states rethes columns, festoons, and eagles. He also did the inscriptions on the inside of the memorial that included Lincoln’s second inaugural address, the Gettysburg address and the Royal Cortissoz inscription above the Lincoln statue. When doing Lincoln’s second inaugural address he misspelled a word accidentally carving an E when it should of been a F so it was filled in but can still be seen today. Then there was Evelyn Beatrice Longman who just like Lincoln was born poor and in a log cabin and later rose to become a skilled artist and sculpture himself. He was responsible for the decoration around the Gettysburg address and Lincoln’s Second inaugural address.Finally the last two people hired were the Piccirilli Brothers and Royal Cortissoz. The Piccirilli Brothers were six brothers who worked with her father to create New York’s premier marble cutting workshop and hired on by Daniel Chester French in 1918. There job consisted of bringing Lincoln’s statue to its completion. They transformed 28 pieces of white Georgia marble into intricately carved pieces that French himself perfected. There efforts turned out so good that the pieces fit together with near invisible seams. They also carved the tripods flanking the exterior step on the east side. Royal Cortissoz now was responsible for drafting the inscription that is located above lincoln’s statue. Today these words great visitors reminding them,”In this temple, as in the hearts of the people for whom he saved the Union, the memory of Abraham Lincoln is enshrined forever,” as wrote by Royal Cortissoz regarding it as one of his proudest accomplishments.Throughout the years now the Lincoln memorial has been used for many demonstrations and other events. The main thing that it has been used for is the civil rights movement. The first one that got it all going was the Dedication to the Lincoln memorial in 1922 were Dr. Robert Russo Moton delivered the first of what would be many civil rights speeches at the memorial, where he challenged the audience to consider Lincoln’s call for a “new birth of freedom.”  In 1939 it was used for the Marian Anderson Concert and again in 1941 for the march on Washington. Then again in 1957 for the Prayer Pilgrimage were Martin Luther King delivered his speech. Then in the 1960’s it became one of the first place to be listed in the National Register of Historic Places. Today the washington monument stands at the western end of the mall in Washington D.C. across from washington’s monument. This is the most visited memorial being visited by 6 million people each year.

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