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 the battle of the parties for control of public offices. Good
and bad times of the two major parties are a standout amongst the most vital
components in American legislative issues.

 the channels
through which individuals’ worries turned out to be political issues on the
administration’s policy agenda. In the United States,
linkage institutions incorporate political parties, elections,
interest groups, and the media.

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 voting with different
parties for different holds of office positions. It has become the standard in
American voting protocol.

 A political party organization that
requires different incentives and money giving opportunities to attain more
votes, including the usage of patronage.

 
One of the incentives used to garner more votes where a
patronage gives a job, contract, or promotion that is distributed to attain
political power, rather than distributed to merit.

 Elections where individuals who are
registered to a party and have provided loyalty to a certain party can only
vote for those party’s candidates, not others, in order to encourage more
party loyalty.

 elections to select party
nominees in which voters can decide on Election Day whether they want to
participate in the Democratic or Republican contests.

 the meeting of party
delegates every four years to choose a presidential ticket and write the
party’s platform.

 group of individuals with a
common interest upon which every political party depends.

 historical periods in which
a majority of voters cling to the party in power, which tends to win a
majority of the elections.

 
an electoral “earthquake” where new issues
emerge, new coalitions replace old ones, and the majority party is often
displaced by the minority party. Critical election periods are sometimes
marked by a national crisis and may require more than one election to bring
about a new party era.

 displacement of the
majority party by the minority party.

 the gradual disengagement
of people and politicians from the parties, as seen in part by shrinking
party identification.

 electoral contenders other
than the two major parties. American third parties are not unusual, but they
rarely win elections.

 electoral system in which
legislative seats are awarded only to the candidates who come in first in
their constituencies. In American presidential elections, the system in which
the winner of the popular votes in a state receives all the electoral votes of
that state.

 an electoral system used
throughout most of Europe that awards legislative seats to political parties
in proportion to the number of votes won in an election.

 when two or more
parties join together to form a majority in a national legislature. This form
of government is quite common in multiparty systems of Europe.

 

  a
caucus of United States Congressional Representatives from the Democratic Party who
identify as conservative Democrats

 the official endorsement of
a candidate for office by a political party. Generally, success in the
nomination game requires momentum, money, and media attention.

 master game plan
candidates lay out to guide their electoral campaign.

 

 
supreme power within each of the parties. The convention
meets every four years to nominate the presidential and vice-presidential
candidates and to write the party’s platform

 national party leaders who
automatically get a delegate slot at the democratic national party convention.

 meeting of all state party
leaders for selecting delegates to the national party convention. Caucuses
are usually organized as a pyramid.

 elections in which voters
in a state vote for a candidate (or delegates pledged to him or her). Most
delegates to the national party conventions are chosen this way.

 recent tendency of states
to hold primaries early in the calendar in order to capitalize on media
attention.

 political party’s statement
of its goals and policies for the next four years. The platform is drafted
prior to the party convention by a committee whose members are chosen in
rough proportion to each candidate’s strength. It is the best formal
statement of a party’s beliefs.

 high-tech method of raising
money for a political cause or candidates. It involves sending information
and requests for money to people whose names appear on lists of those who
have supported similar views or candidates in the past.

 law passed in 1974 for
reforming campaign finances. The act created the Federal Election Commission
(FEC), provided public financing for presidential primaries and general
elections, limited presidential campaign spending, required disclosure, and
attempted to limit contributions.

 six-member bipartisan
agency created by the FECA of 1974. The FEC administers and enforces campaign
finance laws.

 money from the $3 federal
income tax check-off goes into this fund, which is then distributed to
qualified candidates to subsidize their presidential campaigns.

 funds that will be supplied
in an amount matching the funds available from other sources

 political
contributions earmarked for party-building expenses at the grassroots level
or for generic party advertising. Unlike money that goes to the campaign of a
particular candidate, such party donations are not subject to contribution
limits.

 

 groups that mobilize voters
with issue advocacy advertisements on television and radio but may not
directly advocate the election or defeat of a particular candidate

 Nonprofit,
tax-exempt groups organized
under section 501(c) of the
Internal Revenue Code that can engage in varying amounts of political
activity, depending on the type of group.

 funding vehicles created by
the 1974 campaign finance reforms. A corporation, union, or some other
interest group can create a PAC and register it with the FEC, which will
meticulously monitor the PAC’s expenditures.

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