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(ii) Variations:

Members of population vary in physical, physiological and adaptive capacities. Individuals with adaptive variation survive only and those which do not have are perished.

Therefore, variations within a species enable the nature to exercise her selection.

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(iii) Struggle for Existence:

Over-production and variations ensure a competition to obtain its iota of food, space and mate. This competition is called struggle for existence, which has inter-specific, intraspecific and environmental dimensions.

(iv) Survival of the Fittest/Natural Selection:

The ensuing competition is very tough. The natural conditions operating on the individual act as a selective force. Only those individuals with favorable variations are able to survive and are adapted to the available conditions.

(v) Inheritance of Useful Variations:

The individuals, who have been selected by nature, pass on their useful variations to the offspring of next generation.

(vi) Speciation:

The useful variations are preserved and accumulated in the individual of the species which ultimately lead to origin of a new species.

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