ii. NPT is discriminatory treaty that seeks to maintain differences between Nuclear power and non-nuclear powers.
iii. NPT has no provision by which security of India could be secured from the mighty China.
iv. NPT is favourable for countries that can use nuclear weapons.
Not only India, but even Italy, Brazil, Argentina, Nigeria have refused to sign NPT because of discriminatory provisions.
India and CTBT:
CTBT or Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty was prepared by a committee of the conference on Disarmament (1994) and adopted by UN General Assembly (1996) despite opposition from India, Bhutan and Libya.
Article 1 of the treaty prohibits states from nuclear weapons tests explosion or any other nuclear explosion at any place under its jurisdiction or control. India opposes it on the ground that it is discriminatory and merely an extension of the discriminatory NPT system. There are substantial grounds because of which India opposes CTBT.
i. Does not have any provision for time bound nuclear disarmament.
ii. Does not prohibit sub-critical testing’s and computer simulation methods for refinement and modification of nuclear armaments.
iii. More inclined to maintain the status-quo rather than having any commitment to complete disarmament.
iv. It is intended to perpetuate monopolistic hold of big powers on nuclear weapons and their delivery system.
In fact, India’s opposition to CTBT is grounded in response to the public opinion and reflects the national consensus. But, in future India can opt to become a party to CTBT because she has already acquired the arsenal and sophistication in its delivery system. Moreover, it will send a better signal to the world and will be in tune with our commitment to world peace.
NCA-Nuclear Command Authority:
The deadlocks and delay in finalizing the India’s nuclear command authority were finally settled in Jan, 2003. The outcome was nuclear command Authority.
The constitution of nuclear command Authority is as follows:
I. Political Council:
i. headed by PM
ii. Includes Home Minister, Defence Minister and Finance Minister.
iii. solely responsible for authorizing the use of nuclear weapons
II. Executive Council
i. headed by National Security Advisor
ii. provide inputs/information for decision making
iii. execute directives of the political council
III. Chief of staff:
i. act as link between and provide military advice to other agencies
IV. Strategic Process Command:
i. Custodian of nuclear weapons and delivery system.
ii. Administer the nuclear force.
Thus, India’s nuclear policy has evolved with the passage of time and largely is a response to hitherto endangered security perceptions. The operation of discriminatory frameworks further enhanced India’s nuclear programme.
The tests at Pokhran (II), have revealed India’s strength and posted a deterrent to the blackmailers from neighbourhood. It has made India’s intentions clear. Moreover, India welcomes any effort for time bound complete disarmament, but will continue to oppose measure that privileges only a few.