iii. It is placed at disposal of President
iv. to meet unforeseen expenditure by Government
Due to lack of time, if the Lok Sabha accepts, demands for grant made by various ministries without any discussion on them is known as application of Guillotine.
Application of Guillotine is passed only in Lok Sabha.
2. Cut Motions:
A legislative device used to exercise financial control over executive when a demand is made by a minister, a cut may be proposed in it by any member.
The motion for cut comes in the form of an amendment and is intended to bring reduction in the expenditure.
3. National Government:
A government formed by all the political parties or almost all the political parties represented in the Parliament.
4. Shadow Cabinet:
It is formed by main opposition party in the Parliament Members are assigned specific portfolio to lead debates
i. It gives an effective opposition
ii. It trains the M.P’s in the art of governance
iii. Also known as Cabinet in waiting.
iv. Functions well when there are two party systems in U.K. non-existent in India.
v. Introduced in LA of Haryana in 2000.
5. Lame Duck Session:
Last session of old Parliament held after the election of new Parliament. Members of old Parliament who could not get elected to the new Parliament are called lame duck M.P’s. Lame duck session is not relevant in Indian context.
For election to LS takes place only after dissolution of the house. Possible in R.S. where seats to be vacant are elected a month in advance
6. Crafter Government:
A Government comes into existence only if government loses confidence of LS or PM passes away or resigns.
7. Interim Government:
A Government formed during transitional phase.
8. Minority Government:
A Government which does not enjoy the confidence of the Lower House
It survives with outside support of other parties.
9. Coalition Government:
A Government which is formed by coalition of two or more political parties with some common goals to be achieved since 1989 we are witnessing an era of coalition government
They are orders of the President which has the same effect as an act of the Parliament. These orders are issued only when the Parliament is not in the session. It ceases to remain in force, six weeks after Parliament reassembles, unless approved by it.
11. Delegated Legislation:
An informal legislative device by which the executive fills the details of legislative policies, broadly outlined by the legislature it is comparatively a recent phenomenon that has come into operation with growing complexity of the government. It has severely restricted the power of legislature.
Is an electoral procedure by which electoral constituencies are readjusted in view of changing population in a region? It is done by a Delimitation Commission constituted by an act of Parliament after each census.
13. Hung Parliament:
When no political party or coalition of political parties enjoys the majority in L.S. after a general election under such circumstances it becomes difficult for any party to form a government. It paves way for coalition and minority governments.