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Despite various researches on rural-urban migration and integration in Nigeria, it has continued to be a recurring decimal in the equation of the region’s socio-economic. Without any doubt, the phenomenon of accelerated rural-urban migration and integration has been the principal cause of both the high rates of urban population growth and the rising level of urban unemployment.
Since migrants comprise the majority of the urban labor force in Nigeria especially cities like Lagos, the magnitude of rural-urban migration has been and will continue to be the principal determinant of supply of new job seekers and integration. If migration is the sole determinant of the supply of urban labor force, then the migration and integration process must be understood, the nature, and its causes can be better appreciated.
Much of the studies on migration and integration have been focused on economic or educational push or pull factors but have largely neglected some socio-cultural factors that might be a strong influence on migrants. Upon all the frustration the urban cities offer the migrants, the rural people kept on coming into the cities. It is understood that people have good reasons to try to get away from poverty, underemployment, a general lack of opportunities, or in extreme cases famine or violence or natural disasters. In another way, people are lured by the opportunities the urban cities offer, at least in principle. Some migrate for the reasons of better education, health, social services, and living standard. In Nigeria, the rural areas have been long neglected in terms of educational opportunities. In most cases, the urban areas are filled up with educational institutions of all kinds at the expense of the total areas.
He was of the view that rural people move to urban areas because few secondary schools and facilities for technical training exist outside the countryside and government offices and business establishments are also located there. The urban residence becomes essential for the educated class in general and to those who are looking for advancement, especially in white-collar forms of employment. The diversification of the economy has encouraged migration to the urban cities
This according to him, gave monetary value to land, which meant among some peoples that the older men were no longer prepared traditionally, to relinquish their rights in favor of the younger generation and so the latter was obliged to move in search of opportunities elsewhere. Also, Successive Nigerian governments operate an urban-bias developmental policy in which basic amenities and infrastructure are located in the urban centers. As a result, young rural dwellers are pulled thus; push the facilities in the urban areas beyond the breaking points.
It is important to note that economic factors provide sufficient conditions and reasons for rural-urban migration, which eventually lead to integration. In contemporary Nigeria, it is an obvious fact that the primary and secondary school leavers and even university graduates find it difficult to secure job in the labor market especially those who study in the rural areas
A combination of sociological and economic theories will be used this is because migrants. The theory imposes particular meanings on objects and events and, in doing so, largely exclude other possible meanings. Symbols provide the means by which human beings can interact meaningfully with their natural and social environment.do not react to only social issues but also economic considerations. The first of such theories is the symbolic interactionism theory. In order to survive, humans must construct and live in the world of meaning. For example, they must classify natural environment into categories of food and non-food in order to meet basic nutritional requirements. We can deduce from the foregoing that the decision to move away from the rural area to the urban is primarily based on the advantages as more favorable to their existence than the rural area. It is on the basis of this meaning migrants interactions with elements of urbanism is strengthened and are pulled to the city.
In this model, Levis assumed that the urban wages would have to be at least 30% higher than average rural income to induce workers to migrate from their homes. However, the supply of rural labor is considered to be perfectly elastic at this constant urban wage.
Worldwide, rural-urban migration and integration has been a thing of concern to policy makers, development partners and researchers over the years. It is a major source of increased population and demographic pressure in many cities throughout the world. Such population dynamics often carry along tremendous impacts on the environment particularly in situations where infrastructures are not maintained or improved upon in resonance with the rate of population increase.

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