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Their number is more than three thousand and found in Georgia, Tennessee, Kentucky and Virginia States.

The administrator of the Country Board is known as County Superintendent of Education and is selected by the Board itself. These Boards try to conduct a more efficient, developing and useful system of education than the Town Educational System. The organisation and development of rural education depends on the efficiency and devotedness of the County Superintendent.

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The duties of the Superintendent are to control schools, to provide educational facilities to them, to construct an appropriate curriculum, selection of teachers, to prepare rural education programmes, development of rural education, implementation of educational projects, etc.

County Boards have emphasised the consolidation and centralisation of education in rural areas. One-room-schools have been united to make bigger schools. Changes have been brought about in the construction of one-room schools. County Boards have established small units called School Districts under their control.

The County Board has one major drawback and that is, its members are elected by the people. Political parties participate in the elections and therefore, these Boards are generally dominated by political parties. As a result, many useful educational projects and programmes are not accepted.

The public is well aware of this drawback and they are now trying to replace political people by educationists. It is hoped that this change will make the County Boards more successful and efficient administrative units.

Township or Town System:

Township is the administrative unit of small cities and towns. It is an independent, educational administrative unit. Its scope depends on the size of the town or city. In some places, Townships look after the administration of adjoining rural areas. New-Jersey, Pensilvania, Iowa, Michigan, Illinois and Indiana States have Township systems.

In New England, there is a Town system. Township and Towns are quite progressive as the towns are densely populated and hence there is no shortage of students.

The people of towns are more educated and progressive than the people of rural areas hence, Township or Town systems are able to get educated leaders. Educational atmosphere and large population make it convenient to implement modern educational projects and establish well-equipped schools.

Town Educational Boards, also known as Education Committees, are established for educational organisation of the town. The people elect the members of the Education Board and these members select Township School Superintendent or Township School Principal.

School District System:

School District is considered to be the oldest and smallest educational administrative unit. School Districts have those one-room-schools, where one teacher teaches all the subjects at different levels.

In some places, these School-Districts are so small that the children of only a few families receive education in them—their number not exceeding 8 or 10. With the development of education, these School Districts have become a part of Education Boards or Local Education Boards.

Even then their number is about 1, 00,000. American people consider this system incomplete and unsatisfactory for these institutions suffer from communalism and isolation and therefore, only a few families take advantage of these schools.

Poor people do not get any advantage. Moreover, projects of educational development or general reformative schemes cannot be implemented in these schools. The American people are in favour of converting these small units into bigger units so that there are chances of desirable reforms in this direction.

School Districts have their schools managed by District Education Board which are quite independent. They hold supremacy in policy decisions, educational programmes, prescribing qualifications for teachers, their selection and pay scales, reforms in school buildings and all other financial matters concerning their schools.

When European Colonies were established in America, the immigrants had to face a very complex and troublesome atmosphere. They established one-room schools in their small colonies in order that their children might not go very far for receiving education. These schools were established according to the need of the colony. So, these schools were multi-purpose and economical.

This advantage led to the expansion of one- room schools. Later on, School Districts were established for managing them. The number of these institutions is maximum in New England because this type of system first originated in this state.

City School Organisation:

In the field of education, a city is that areas were 25 to 30 thousand people live. But the Federal Government has accepted all those areas as Urban where the population is more than 2,500.

This system is quite separate from Township system. Except those States which have Township system, the big cities of other States have City School Organisation.

The City School Organisation is more developed than the educational system of rural areas, as the people in the cities are more educated. The result is that for conducting the educational system, educated citizens, educationists, leaders and workers with progressive ideas are easily available.

Multi- roomed schools are established to give education to a sufficient number of students who were available as a result of the large population.

In these schools new, scientific and modern educational projects can be easily implemented because of the availability of all educational facilities. Transport facilities also make this organisation more progressive.

Educational Administrative Unit:

City educational organisation is conducted by City Education Board. In some places, the Chairman of this Board is Superintendent of City Education. In some places, the Superintendent and the City Board work separately while they work jointly and as associates in still other places.

There are different traditions in different places for the selection of Superintendent and the members of the City Education Board.

In cities, where the population is more than 30 thousand, the members are elected by voting. In some cities, they are nominated by the Mayor of the City, City Council and Legislature members. The Superintendent of City Education is elected by members of the City Education Board.

Organisation of the City Schools:

City Board assigns programmes for educational projects for all the schools within its jurisdiction. These programmes and projects are executed by the Education Superintendent and his associates and other educational officials of the city. Assistant Superintendent, Headmasters and teachers are the associates of the Superintendent.

City Education Board is entirely responsible for the teaching process. The experts of Health, Medicine and Physical Education and Psychology from the second category of officials who manage the teaching of these subjects under the supervision of the Education Superintendent.

The Superintendent of City Education is the representative of the City Board. The number of officials under the Superintendent and the Board depends on the area and population of the city.

The Superintendent of City Education:

The Superintendent does not belong to any special class. Any person belonging to any community, class, group and religion or place may be a candidate for the post but he should have completed a 4 years degree course from a university, or should have obtained a Master’s Degree. In other places the qualifications are quite different.

His term has been found to be from 1 year to 21 years depanding on his efficiency, capacity and dedication. The economic status of the Superintendent is sufficiently high in places where he undertakes important and responsible work. His annual salary may be from 3 thousand dollars to 14 thousand dollars.

The City Education Superintendent is wholly responsible for the educational organisation of the city. He appoints the officials and workers of his department of his associate officials appoint them on his behalf.

He implements the educational policy, rules and projects prescribed by the Federal and State Government and contacts the members of the Board departmental officials and other workers for the execution of the policies and projects.

He also formulates educational rules, educational policy and programmes for educational organisation. He gives his consent for curriculum and text­books. His duties include management and supervision of schools, improvement of school buildings, their sale and construction, provision for the health and medical care, gymnastics, games and sports and attendance.

He is also authorised to transfer officials, servants and teachers, punish or dismiss staff and fix their salaries.

City Education Board:

In places where there is a provision for the City Education Superintendent and City Board both, the Superintendent and the Board act as a legislature. The Superintendent is the Chairman or Administrator of the Board.

The Board is not obliged to accept the proposals or recommendations of the Superintendent. Generally, the City Education Board formulates education policy and the Superintendent implements it as in the case of the State Education Board. In places where only Education Boards exist, the duties of the Superintendent are performed by the Board.

The number of the members of the City Board depends on the size and area of the city. Their minimum number is 3 and maximum 21. In cities where the population is about 1, 00,000, the number of members is 7 or 8.

The term of the members is usually 2 to 4 years, but their term is 7 years in cities where the population is large. There is no prescribed qualification for the members of the Board; however, people elect able and learned members.

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