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2. Pesticides and weedicides are widely used in agricultural practices, but they affect other organisms in addition to their targets. The inorganic fertilizer and pesticide residues are responsible for killing several types of soil organisms, worms, etc.

3. Sulphur dioxide can destroy leaf tissues. It can cause a disease in which the green portion of leaves become yellow.

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4. Many species of hunting birds with high level of DDT in their bodies are threatened with extinction. There is some disruptions in animal reproduction due to DDT.

5. Improperly managed and designed landfills attract all kinds of insects and rodents, which spread diseases.

6. Recycling of wastes also carries health risks if proper precautions are not taken.

7. The animals which feed on plants growing in polluted areas take in fluorides through them. This decreases their capacity to produce milk and also affects their teeth and bones.

8. The terrestrial animals which are dependent upon the aquatic ecosystem get affected as a result of increase in acid concentrations. It decreases their population.

Impact of Waste Accumulation on Aquatic Life (Freshwater and Marine):

Solid and liquid wastes that accumulate in water bodies affect the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the aquatic ecosystem. The life form in the aquatic ecosystem is adversely affected and the impact can range from less reproduction and also reduction in total population of various plants and animals to the extinction of a few species which cannot survive in the changed environment.

1. Dissolved Oxygen (DO) is an essential requirement for all types of aquatic life. A decrease in DO value indicates the presence of pollution, mainly due to organic waste. It leads to the elimination of sensitive organisms like plankton, molasses and fish.

2. The thermal power plants and oil refineries release hot water into nearby water bodies. The increase in the temperature of water has hazardous effects on fishes and algae, which is wiped out in due course of time.

3. Eutrophication: Waste from sewage and agricultural fields reach ponds and lakes. They have plant nutrients. This causes the growth of algae and other aquatic weeds. They cover the water surface completely. They release toxins in water and thus reduce the DO level. Toxicity and shortage of oxygen may cause decrease in population or even death of aquatic animals. This process is called eutrophication.

4. The organic synthetic chemicals are used on a large scale to make articles of our daily use, such as nylon, polyester, plastic goods, detergents, paints, insecticides, food additives and pharmaceutical products. Some amount of organic synthetic chemicals also reaches water bodies through industrial or domestic wastes. They can harm the aquatic plants and animals, even when they are in small quantity.

5. Bioaccumulation causes toxic chemicals to accumulate in high concentrations in the tissues of animals and plants. The pesticides are non­-biodegradable and fat-soluble. When ingested by the aquatic organisms, they are not broken down and stay stored in tissues. The ill-effects of this are felt many decades after they are actually used. Bioaccumulation is also seen with toxic metals like mercury, lead, copper, etc.

6. Industries and nuclear power plants in coastal areas dump their waste in the seas. Organic chemicals also reach the seas and oceans through rivers. These wastes harm marine life forms in many ways.

7. Pollution due to oil spills during off-shore exploration and extraction of oil has increased many times in the last fifty years. Oil spills affect marine life on a massive scale, killing plankton, fish and marine birds. They also harm coral reefs and can enter seafood consumed by human beings.

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